Skip to main content

Full text of "Arden : the architecture and planning of a Delaware utopia"

See other formats


,  1 ; 





Eliza  Harvey  Edwards 



Historic  Preservation 

Presented  to  the  faculties  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in 
Partial  Fulfillment  of  the  Requiiements  for  the  Degree  of 


•a<  -1  (^.    I l^^-fyr-^^^ 


George  E.  Thomas,  Lecturer  in  Historic  Preservation,  Advisor 
Christa  Wilmanns-Wells,  Lecturer  in  Historic  Preservation,  Reader 


,6ayiaG.  De  Loi*ig^rofessor  of  Aichite(ituie/ 
Graduate  Group  Chairman 

y  N/\j/  0  2,/  I  ^^=1  V  ^  2-  <^ 




©  1993  by  Eliza  H.  Edwards.  All  rights  reserved. 







Frank  Stephens 10 

William  L.  Price 12 

Purchase   of  the   Derrickson   Farm 18 

Social  and  Economic  Objectives  of  Frank  Stephens  and  William  Price 20 



1900-  1908 47 

1909-1916 56 

Gild     Hall 68 

The    Craftshop 70 

Arden  Church 72 

The  Cooler 74 

Little     Arden 74 

Continued  Development  of  Arden 75 




A.  Arden  Timeline 125 

B.  Arden  Map,  1910 134 

C.  Arden  Deed  of  Trust 136 

D.  Arden  Building  Names 138 

E.  Map  and  Key  to  Significant  Elements  of  Arden's  Plan 140 

E.  Map  and  Key  to  Arden  Buildings 143 

F.  Arden    Land    Rentals 146 

G.  Poem  from  Frank  Stephens  to  William  Price 152 

H .  National  Register  Nomination  Form,  1 973 1 54 

I.    Price  and  Dickey  Commissions 161 


Ul  - 


Plates  Page 

1.  Henry  George  80 

2.  Frank  Stephens  81 

3 .  William  L.  Price  at  Drafting  Board.  8 1 

4.  "Tower  House"  --  Wayne,  Pennsylvania.  82 

5.  Woodmont.  82 

6.  W.L.  Price  House  --  6334  Sherwood  Road,  Overbrook,  PA.  83 

7.  "Kelty"  -  W.L.  Price  House  --  Overbrook,  PA.  Built  1899.  83 

8 .  Alice  Barber  Stephens  Residence,  Rose  VaUey,  PA.  84 

9.  Hawley  McLanahan  Residence,  Rose  Valley,  PA.  84 

10.  Improvement  Houses,  Rose  Valley,  PA  -  Under  Construction.  85 

1 1 .  Improvement  Houses,  Rose  Valley,  PA  -  Completed.  85 

12.  Adas  of  the  State  of  Delaware,  Philadelphia,  D.G.  Beers,  1868.  86 

13.  Adas  of  New  Casde  County  Delaware,  Philadelphia:  D.G.  Beers,  1893.  87 

14.  Derrickson  Bam.  Southeast  Facade.  88 

15.  United  States  Geological  Survey  Map,  "Marcus  Hook,  PA--DE--NJ,"  1948.      89 

16.  ArdenPlan,  1910.  90 

17.  View  of  Naaman's  Creek.  91 

18.  View  of  Naaman's  Creek.  91 

19.  Pageant  outside  the  Arden  Inn.  92 

20.  Tennis  on  the  court  along  the  Village  Green.  92 

21.  "Jumping  Rope."  Date  of  photograph  unknown.  93 

22.  Camp  Meeting  arrangement.  93 

23.  Arden  Entrance  Stile.  94 

24.  Field  Theater.  94 

25.  Bide- A- Wee  Interior.  95 

26.  Arden  Tent.  95 

27.  Homestead,  c.  1902-09.  96 


Plates  Page 

28.  Homestead,  1993.  96 

29.  Arden  Inn.  Rear  view  from  the  south.  97 

30.  Red  House.  97 

3 1 .  Red  House.  Side  view  looking  towards  the  Village  Green.  98 

32.  Red  House  after  Craftshop  was  added  in  1913.  98 

33.  The  Monastery.  99 

34.  Stained  Glass  Window  of  Monk  in  the  Monastery.  100 

35.  Admiral  BenBow.  101 

36.  First  Cabin.  101 

37.  The  Brambles.  102 

38.  Arden  Sawmill.  102 

39.  Second  Homestead.  103 

40.  Second  Homestead.  103 

41.  Second  Homestead.  First  floor  interior.  104 

42.  Second  Homestead.  Second  floor  interior.  105 

43.  Second  Homestead.  Exterior  view  of  south  facade.  106 

44.  Friendly  Gables.  106 

45.  Green  Gate.  107 

46.  Green  Gate,  1993.  107 

47.  Green  Gate.  Interior  mural.  108 

48.  Green  Gate.  Mural  detail.  109 

49.  Robert  Woolery's  Grocery  Store  and  Post  Office.  109 

50.  Foote  House.   1808  Harvey  Road.  110 

51.  Foote  House,  1993.  110 

52.  The  Lodge.  Southwest  view.  Ill 

53.  The  Lodge.  West  facade.  112 

54.  Rest  Cottage  under  construction,  1909.  1 12 

5 5 .  Rest  Cottage  under  construction,  1 909.  1 1 3 

56.  Rest  Cottage,  1992.  113 

57.  Jungalow.  114 

58.  Katherine  Ross  Bungalow.  Exterior  from  northwest.  114 

Plates  Page 

59.  Katherine  Ross  Bungalow.  Interior  view.  115 

60.  The  Brambles,  1911.  Under  construction.  116 

61.  The  Brambles  ("Downs  Cottage").  Post-expansion.  116 

62.  The  Brambles  ("Downs  Cottage"),  1992.  1 17 

63.  Chestnut  Burr.  118 

64.  CampBeulah.  118 

65.  Derrickson  Bam  before  conversion  to  Gild  Hall  in  1909.  1 19 

66.  Derrickson  Bam  after  conversion  to  Gild  Hall  in  1909.  1 19 

67.  Craftshop.  120 

68.  Craftshop,  1993.  120 

69.  Work  produced  by  the  Arden  Forge.  121 

70.  Arden  Church.  Pencil  sketch  by  William  L.  Price,  1910.  121 

71.  The  Cooler.  122 

72.  Rest  Harrow.  123 



I  would  like  to  thank  all  the  people  that  I  came  into  contact  with  in  Arden  during  my 
research  and  explorations  of  the  town.  A  very  special  thank  you  to  Arden  Archives  GUd 
members  Pat  Liberman,  Joan  Ware  Colgan  and  Sally  Hamburger  who  made  available  the 
invaluable  resources  of  the  archives  and  who  tolerated  my  many  visits.  Don  Holcomb  and 
Peg  Aumack  (granddaughter  of  Frank  Stephens)  also  deserve  special  thanks  for  providing 
historic  photographs  that  were  so  helpful  in  putting  the  Arden  puzzle  pieces  together. 
Others  who  were  extremely  helpful  and  hospitable  during  my  research  included  Arden 
residents  Rae  Gerstine,  Sue  Rohrbach,  Cy  Liberman,  Ellen  Dohnetsch,  Jim  Semenick, 
Ann  Berlin,  Barbara  Fenske,  Mike  Curtis,  and  Hugh  Roberts.  I  share  with  all  of  them 
their  enthusiasm  for  Arden  and  a  desire  to  celebrate  it  as  a  unique  American  community. 

Friend  and  fellow  classmate  Elizabeth  Bitterman  also  deserves  recognition,  for  it  was  with 
her  that  I  first  began  to  research  Arden.  Together  we  delved  into  Arden,  sharing  many  long 
hours  of  research  and  numerous  Delaware  road  trips. 

I  am  especially  grateful  to  my  advisor  George  Thomas  and  the  rest  of  his  family  clan  not 
only  for  giving  me  direction  and  encouragement  in  my  research,  but  for  including  me  in 
many  family  dinners,  making  certain  that  I  was  provided  with  sufficient  food  for  thought! 
A  hearty  thank  you  as  well  to  my  reader  Christa  Wilmanns-Wells  who  was  so  enthusiastic, 
helpful,  thorough,  and  always  full  of  smiles. 

Christie  and  Jim  Bogrette  also  deserve  a  very  special  thanks.  This  thesis  may  never  have 
been  completed  had  it  not  been  for  their  generosity  in  sharing  their  trusty  laser  printer  with 

-  vu  - 


Arden...  the  name  evokes  a  notion  of  Arcadia,  a  pastoral  ideal,  a  bucolic  place  in  the 
countryside,  a  Utopia.  Arden,  Delaware  was  intended  to  be  just  such  a  place  —  a 
community  free  from  the  poverty  and  suffering  so  prevalent  in  turn  of  the  century 
America.  The  name  Arden  was  derived  from  WilHam  Shakespeare's  As  You  Like  It,  set 
in  the  Forest  of  Arden  where  "...a  many  merry  men...  live  like  the  old  Robin  Hood  of 
England...  and  fleet  the  time  carelessly  as  they  did  in  the  golden  world." i  The  name 
alone  makes  clear  the  intent  of  Arden's  founders  G.  Frank  Stephens  (1859-1935)  and 
William  L.  Price  (1861-1916)  to  establish  a  community  that  would  demonstrate  an 
alternative  way  of  life  and  provide  a  model  for  change.    In  1900,  Price  and  Stephens 
purchased  a  162-acre  parcel  of  farmland  in  northern  Delaware,  six  miles  northwest  of 
Wilmington,  where  they  began  to  lay  the  foundations  for  Arden. 

The  turn  of  the  century  was  a  tumultuous  time  in  America  —  a  period  of  tremendous 
economic  and  social  change.  America  was  in  the  midst  of  industrialization:  large 
institutions  and  corporations  were  being  formed;  enormous  sums  of  money  were  being 
made;  the  American  population  was  becoming  increasingly  urbanized;  finance  was 
growing  more  centralized;  and  society  and  its  government  was  beginning  to  be  dominated 
by  big  business.  But,  as  many  learned,  growth  and  progress  did  not  come  without  their 
problems.  While  the  country  as  a  whole  was  experiencing  one  of  its  most  productive 

^William  Shakespeare,  As  You  Like  It  (NY:  Airmont  Publishing  Co.,  Inc.,  1965),  8. 

economic  periods,  this  new  wealth  was  concentrated  within  a  very  small  segment  of  the 

American  population,  leading  to  great  economic  disparity  between  the  working  classes 

and  the  industry  leaders.  Delaware  resident,  Henry  Seidel  Canby,  in  his  memoirs  of 

childhood  during  die  1890s,  described  this  era  as: 

...the  economic  age  of  concentration.  Individualists  of  unparalleled  energy 
were  killing  individualism  for  the  benefit  of  their  purses,  reducing  anarchy 
to  order  and  chaos  to  form,  in  unwitting  preparation  for  a  new  social  order. 
Uneducated  men,  unprincipled,  strong-willed,  of  first-rate  ability,  were 
ruling  a  continent  while  a  feeble  government  looked  on.2 

Due  to  the  growing  disparity,  the  tensions  and  conflicts  of  the  period  were  considerable, 

cuhninating  in  cataclysmic  labor  struggles  such  as  the  railroad  strike  of  1877  and  the 

Pullman  Strike  of  1894.  Ironically,  taking  place  concurrently  was  the  1893  Chicago 

World  Columbian  Exposition,  the  quintessential  celebration  of  America's  progress.  This 

event,  occurring  amidst  die  social  strife  of  the  period,  illustrated  the  divergent  attitudes 

toward  American  progress,  exacerbating  tensions  in  society. 

The  greatest  impact  of  America's  industrialization  was  felt  in  the  cities  where 
uncontrolled  growth  had  led  to  unforeseen  levels  of  crime,  disease  and  poverty.  Jacob 
Riis  (1849-1914),  a  Danish-bom  photojoumalist  and  author  best  known  for  his  book  How 
the  Other  Half  Lives  (1890),  exposed  the  declining  conditions  of  American  cities  and 
initiated  a  reform  movement  aimed  at  alleviating  the  wretched  tenement  conditions  and 
the  other  indignities  of  lower-class  urban  life.  Like  Riis,  other  American  audiors  also 
capitalized  on  this  turbulent  time  in  America,  using  literature  as  an  instrument  for 
bringing  about  change.  Among  the  most  influential  of  these  so-called  "muckrakers"  was 
Upton  Sinclair  (1878-1968),  author  of  ne  Jungle  (1906),  a  book  that  examined  the 
Chicago  meatpacking  trade  and  revealed  to  die  American  public  the  exploitation  of 

^Henry  S.  Canby,  Age  of  Confidence:  Life  in  the  Nineties  (New  York:  Farrar  &  Rinehart,  1934). 


immigrant  workers  and  the  general  corruption  of  American  industry.    Authors  like  Riis 
and  Sinclair  played  a  critical  role  during  this  period.    Literature  of  the  period  echoed  the 
various  perceptions  of  the  industrial  age  and  exposed  some  of  the  deleterious  effects  of 
industry,  thereby  helping  to  instigate  efforts  toward  social  reform. 

All  of  these  political  and  social  events,  cries  for  economic  reform,  and  literary 
outpourings  set  the  stage  for  Arden.  Arden  represented  a  culmination  of  the  conflicts 
occurring  in  American  society,  a  desperate  plea  for  change.    Frank  Stephens,  an 
accomplished  sculptor,  and  William  Price,  a  distinguished  architect,  sought  to  establish  a 
remedial  community  that  was  intended  not  only  as  an  escape  for  those  living  amidst  the 
burgeoning  industrial  centers  of  Philadelphia  and  Wilmington  but  as  a  model  for 
worldwide  economic  and  social  reform.  Their  strategy  for  achievmg  these  goals  was  to 
marry  the  economic  theories  of  "Single  Taxer"  Henry  George  (1839-1897)  with  the  arts 
and  crafts  ideals  of  Englishman  William  Morris  (1834-1896). 

Henry  George  was  among  the  numerous  nineteenth  century  writers  proposing  social  and 
economic  remedies  for  the  deteriorating  American  society  (Plate  1).  In  his  book  Progress 
and  Poverty  (1879),  the  title  itself  expressive  of  the  contrasting  impressions  of  American 
society  following  the  Civil  War,  George  proposed  his  "Single  Tax"  philosophy,  the 
strategy  of  economic  reform  that  was  eventually  implemented  at  Arden.  In  Progress  and 
Poverty  George  explained  that  ironically,  poverty  had  become  the  outcome  of  progress  — 
with  the  increase  of  wealth  had  come  an  increase  of  want.^  Progress  and  Poverty  was  a 
passionate  and  persuasive  call  to  action: 

^Henry  George,  Progress  and  Poverty,  1879,  Reprint  Centenary  Edition  (NY:  Robert  Schalkenbach 
Foundation,  1979),  10. 


So  long  as  all  the  increased  wealth  which  modem  progress  brings  goes  but 
to  build  up  great  fortunes,  to  increase  luxury  and  make  sharper  the  contrast 
between  the  House  of  Have  and  the  House  of  Want,  progress  is  not  real 
and  cannot  be  permanent.  The  reaction  must  come.  The  tower  leans  from 
its  foundations,  and  every  new  story  but  hastens  the  final  catastrophe.^ 

George  blamed  America's  growing  economic  disparity  on  the  private  ownership  of  land. 

He  explained  that  material  progress  had  led  to  increasing  land  values,  and  that  it  was  only 

a  small  segment  of  the  population  ~  the  landowners  and  large  corporations  -  that 

benefited  from  the  progress.  To  alleviate  this  destructive  concentration  of  wealth,  George 

proposed  that  the  form  of  land  ownership  be  entirely  restructured  so  that  land  could  be 

held  in  common  and  that  all  taxes  be  abolished  with  the  exception  of  a  single  tax  on  land 

value.  Thus,  any  increase  in  land  value  would  benefit  a  community  as  a  whole  rather 

than  the  individual  landowner.  Furthermore,  George  argued  that  levying  this  one  tax 

based  on  the  full  rental  value  of  land  regardless  of  any  improvements  would  eliminate  the 

need  for  any  other  taxation,  bringing  in  sufficient  annual  revenues  to  support  the  public 

services  of  a  given  community.  His  strategy  proposed  that  any  excess  revenues  from  land 

leases  be  reinvested  in  the  community  to  make  improvements  to  roads  or  other  such 

public  goods. 

Progress  and  Poverty  was  an  immediate  success,  selling  two  million  copies  in  the  United 
States  and  being  translated  into  several  languages.  The  book  generated  great  excitement 
and  resulted  in  the  establishment  throughout  the  United  States  of  numerous  Single  Tax 
associations  that  actively  campaigned  for  the  adoption  of  George's  Single  Tax  system. 
George's  plan  was  first  adopted  in  1895  in  the  founding  of  Fairhope,  Alabama,  America's 
first  Single  Tax  colony.  Henry  George,  a  Philadelphian  himself,  had  a  particularly 
enthusiastic  group  of  followers  in  the  mid- Atlantic  region,  among  them  Frank  Stephens 


and  William  L.  Price  who  ultimately  implemented  George's  Single  Tax  system  in  their 
plans  for  Arden. 

William  Morris,  another  nineteenth  century  writer  who  proposed  a  recipe  for  social 
reform,  was  an  additional  source  of  inspiration  for  the  founders  of  Arden.  It  was  Morris, 
the  noted  English  decorative  artist,  who  became  one  of  the  leading  proponents  of  the 
revival  of  Medieval  arts  and  crafts.  News  From  Nowhere  (1890),  Morris'  Utopian  novel, 
outlined  an  ideal  world  based  on  the  values  of  the  arts  and  crafts  movement  Having 
wimessed  the  degradation  of  crafts  and  architecture  resulting  from  the  Industrial 
Revolution  in  England,  Morris  used  his  Utopian  novel  to  promote  the  creation  of  a  more 
humane  state  through  a  resurgence  of  fine  craftsmanship.  As  News  From  Nowhere 
demonstrates,  Morris  sought  to  improve  the  state  of  humanity  through  the  quality  of 
crafts  and  architecture  and  to  elevate  the  importance  of  craftsmen  within  society.  He 
argued  that  the  creation  of  beautiful  objects  was  only  possible  if  craftsmen  were  provided 
with  an  environment  dominated  by  music,  drama,  and  other  arts  -  an  atmosphere  suitable 
for  inspiring  creativity. 

Looking  to  both  Henry  George  and  William  Morris  for  inspiration  and  direction,  Frank 
Stephens  and  William  Price  founded  Arden.  As  William  Morris  recommended,  a  creative 
artistic  environment  was  impossible  without  first  resolving  some  of  the  economic  issues. 
Therefore,  to  rectify  economic  inequalities.  Price  and  Stephens  adopted  Henry  George's 
strategy  of  land  ownership,  thus  establishing  the  second  Single  Tax  community  ever  to  be 
developed.  With  this  form  of  land  ownership,  Stephens  and  Price  intended  to  create  a 
place  of  social  harmony  --  a  community  that  was  open  to  all,  regardless  of  economic 
class,  race,  ethnicity,  or  pohtical  association.    Price  and  Stephens  took  up  Moiris' 


philosophies  to  encourage  arts  and  crafts  within  the  community.  Stephens  and  Price 
believed  that  it  was  this  combination  of  economic  and  artistic  reform  that  would  be  the 
most  effective  antidote  for  the  multitude  of  social  ills  they  saw  as  so  destructive  to 
American  culture  at  the  end  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

Arden  was  by  no  means  the  only  Utopian  community  developed  in  America  at  the  turn  of 
the  century.  The  restive  state  of  American  society  provided  a  fertile  ground  for  the 
cultivation  of  Utopias,  each  seeking  to  resolve  the  ills  of  society  through  different  means. 
What  makes  Arden  unique  among  the  numerous  Utopian  communities  founded  at  that 
time  is  that  it  continues  to  thrive  today,  retaining  much  of  its  original  character  and 
building  stock.  Most  of  the  Utopian  communities  envisioned  at  the  turn  of  the  century 
such  as  Elbert  Hubbard's  Roycroft  in  East  Aurora,  New  York,  or  Gustav  Stickley's 
Craftsman  Farms  in  Parsippany,  New  Jersey,  have  failed  to  endure.^  Arden,  on  the  other 
hand,  acmally  expanded.  To  the  south  of  Arden,  two  sister  communities  were  established 
on  adjacent  parcels  --  Ardentown,  a  109-acre  community,  was  established  in  1922  and  the 
63-acre  Ardencroft  was  added  in  1950.  Because  Arden  remains  intact  today,  it  serves  as 
an  important  tribute  to  political,  economic  and  social  sentiments  in  America  at  the  turn  of 
the  century  and  a  living  reminder  of  the  determination  of  early  twentieth  century  pioneers 
committed  to  social  reform. 

5  Virginia  L.  Hamilton,  ed.,  Aurora's  Architectural  Heritage  (East  Aurora,  NY:  SG  Press,  Inc.,  1973).  The 
town  of  Roycroft  was  another  American  development  that  grew  out  of  the  ideas  of  William  Morris.  Elbert 
Hubbard,  a  Larkin  Soap  executive  from  Buffalo,  New  York  moved  to  Aurora  to  establish  Roycroft,  a 
community  in  which  people  could  pursue  their  artistic  interests.  The  town  got  underway  in  1895  but  failed 
in  the  1930s  as  a  result  of  the  Depression. 

"Craftsman  Farms"  pamphlet  by  the  Craftsman  Farms  Foundation,  Inc.,  1991.  Craftsman  Farms  was 
established  in  1908  by  Gustave  Stickely  and  intended  as  a  school  of  arts  and  crafts  for  boys.  Financial 
difficulties  delayed  the  opening  of  the  school  and  eventuaUy  forced  Stickley  and  his  family  to  sell 
Craftsman  Farms  in  1915. 


The  ideas  of  Morris  and  George  made  up  the  theoretical  foundations  of  Arden,  however, 
it  was  Frank  Stephens  and  Will  Price  who  utilized  their  collaborative  artistic  talents  to 
devise  a  physical  plan  for  the  community.  This  thesis  provides  a  documentation  of  the 
development  of  Arden' s  physical  plan  and  the  evolution  of  its  architecture,  illustrating 
how  Arden' s  plan  and  architecture,  reflecting  the  social  objectives  of  Stephens  and  Price, 
were  designed  to  encourage  peaceful  living,  individualism,  artistic  creativity,  equality, 
cooperation  among  residents,  and  love  of  the  outdoors.    For  the  purposes  of  this  study, 
the  examination  has  been  limited  to  16  years,  from  1900,  the  year  of  Arden' s  founding,  to 
1916,  the  year  of  architect  William  Price's  death.  This  study  of  Arden's  architecture 
tracks  the  community's  development  and  maturation  process  showing  how  Arden  grew 
during  this  16-year  period  from  a  fledgling  summer  village  to  a  more  robust  year-round 

Using  this  study  as  a  tool,  it  is  my  intent  to  educate  the  residents  of  Arden  and  the  general 
public  as  to  the  historical  significance  and  value  of  Arden's  building  stock  and  to  explain 
how  the  architecture  and  the  overall  plan  of  the  community  are  not  only  integral  to  the 
original  principles  on  which  Arden  was  founded,  but  also  how  they  reflect  progressive 
early  twentieth  century  thinking  -  a  return  to  simplicity,  a  rejection  of  Victorian 
excesses,  a  renewed  interest  in  arts  and  crafts,  a  search  for  an  appropriate  strategy  of 
economic  reform,  and  the  growing  regard  for  the  rural  outdoors  as  a  healthy  environment 
and  an  inspiration  to  creativity.    The  free  form  and  diminutive  scale  of  Arden's 
architecture  has  generally  been  preserved  but  there  are  signs  that  the  community  is 
gradually  undergoing  physical  change.  Arden  is  young  enough  that  some  of  its  earlier 
residents,  or  at  least  some  of  their  direct  descendants,  are  still,  in  fact,  living  in  the 
community  keeping  Arden's  early  memories  alive.  But  this  will  not  be  the  case  forever. 


Arden  is  currently  at  a  critical  juncture.  It  is  hoped  that  this  documentation  of  Arden  and 
its  architecture  will  ensure  that  the  principal  elements  of  the  community's  original 
development  plan  be  retained  as  tangible,  interpretive  evidence  of  Arden 's  unique 
development  and  its  important  place  in  the  annals  of  American  history. 



It  was  in  Philadelphia,  home  to  both  of  Arden's  founders  Frank  Stephens  and  William 
Price,  that  the  idea  for  Arden  was  first  conceived.    At  the  turn  of  the  century  Philadelphia 
was  a  hub  of  intellectual  activity.  Among  the  numerous  professional,  artistic  and  social 
clubs  were  the  Philadelphia  Single  Tax  Society  and  the  Ethical  Culture  Society,  two 
organizations  that  were  central  to  the  genesis  of  Arden.  The  Philadelphia  Single  Tax 
Society,  a  zealous  group  of  individuals  committed  to  the  proliferation  of  the  Single  Tax, 
was  where  Frank  Stephens  and  William  Price  first  teamed  up  to  begin  formulating  their 
ideas  for  Arden. ^  The  Ethical  Culture  Society  was  like  the  Philadelphia  Single  Tax 
Society  in  that  it  provided  an  important  forum  for  discussions  of  social  reform  efforts  and 
strategies.  While  it  is  uncertain  that  Price  and  Stephens  were  members  of  this  progressive 
organization,  autobiographical  accounts  of  certain  Arden  residents  suggest  that  the 
Ethical  Culture  Society  played  an  important  role  in  Arden.''    This  link  to  Arden  was  due 
in  large  part  to  the  involvement  of  certain  key  members,  namely  Ella  Reeve  Bloor,  one  of 
Arden's  earliest  residents,  and  Joseph  Fels,  who  eventually  became  Arden's  primary 
financial  sponsor.^  Other  Philadelphia  clubs  and  institutions  with  which  Stephens  and 
Price  were  both  associated  include  the  Philadelphia  Sketch  Club,  the  Art  Club,  and  the 

^Frank  Stephens  Autobiography,  Arden  Papers,  5. 

'^Ella  Reeve  Bloor,  We  Are  Many  (NY:  International  Publishers  Co.,  Inc.,  1940),  41-3.  In  Bloor's 
autobiography  she  states  that  she  became  a  member  of  the  Ethical  Culture  Society  in  the  early  1890s, 
joining  Horace  Traubel,  who  at  the  time  was  editor  of  the  Ethical  Society  newspaper.  The  Conservator. 
George  Thomas'  dissertation  "William  L.  Price:  Builder  of  Men  and  of  Buildings"  (1975)  states  that  Horace 
Traubel  was  a  very  close  friend  of  William  Price.  Not  only  did  they  both  have  offices  in  the  same  building, 
but  Traubel  became  actively  involved  in  the  establishment  of  Rose  Valley. 

^Minutes  of  the  Ethical  Society's  Board  of  Trustees  Meeting,  1885-1892.  Unfortunately,  most  of  the  early 
membership  records  of  the  Ediical  Society  have  not  been  retained  and  exact  membership  information  was 
unavailable.  These  minutes,  however,  show  that  Horace  Traubel  and  Joseph  Fels  were  on  the  Board  of 
Trustees  of  the  Ethical  Society.  It  is  presumed  that  Stephens  and  Price  may  also  have  been  members  or  at 
least  were  closely  bnked.  Records  show  that  the  Price  family  was  involved  in  the  Ethical  Society;  Emma 
Price,  Will's  wife,  appeared  in  the  list  of  contributors  to  the  society  in  1924. 


Philadelphia  Museum  School  (now  part  of  the  University  of  the  Arts)  where  Price  studied 
architecture  during  the  1880s.^ 

Frank  Stephens 

George  Frank  Stephens  --  always  referred  to  as  Frank  -  was  bom  in  Rahway,  New  Jersey 
in  1859  (Plate  2).  With  a  father  who  was  an  artist,  Frank  gained  his  appreciation  for  art 
and  developed  his  artistic  talent  at  an  early  age.  He  was  a  determined  child  with  high 
energy  and  big  aspirations.  As  he  put  it,  "I  grew  up  on  the  farm  in  a  childhood  that  was 
all  books  and  daydreams  and  dread  that  all  the  things  worth  doing  in  the  world  would 
have  been  accomplished  by  the  time  I  was  old  enough  to  have  a  hand  in  any  of  them."^° 
Despite  this  concern,  Stephens  never  had  a  shortage  of  dreams.    He  was  always  active  in 
social  and  political  affairs,  which  provided  him  with  an  unending  succession  of 
challenges  throughout  his  life. 

A  bright  student,  Stephens  attended  Rutgers  College  in  New  Brunswick,  New  Jersey, 

until  an  eye  operation  during  his  sophomore  year  ended  his  college  career,  ^i  Due  to  his 

determination,  however,  Stephens  educational  path  was  not  to  end  there,  and  with 

encouragement  from  his  artist  father,  he  entered  the  Pennsylvania  Academy  of  Fine  Arts 

in  Philadelphia  in  1875,  where  he  spent  the  better  part  of  ten  years  as  a  student  of 
sculpture.  12 

^Philadelphia  Sketch  Club  Membership  Book,  Miaofilm  #3666.  Frank  Stephens  was  a  member  of  the 
Philadelphia  Sketch  Club  from  188 1  to  his  death  in  1935.   His  brother  Charles  was  the  president  of  the 
Club  from  1913  to  1916.  William  Price  became  a  member  of  the  club  after  the  founding  of  Arden.  His 
membership  was  sporadic:  1902-05, 1907-09,  1916.  Stephens  had  helped  to  found  the  Art  Club, 
l^rank  Stephens  Autobiography,  Arden  Papers, 

^^Pennsylvania  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  Student  Records.  It  was  at  the  Academy  that  Stephens  met  his  first 
wife,  Caroline  "Caddie"  Eakins  (1865-1889),  sister  of  the  notable  artist  Thomas  Eakins  (1844-1916). 
Eakins  was  an  instructor  at  the  Academy  while  Stephens  was  a  student.  Despite  Stephens  marrying  Eakins' 
sister  in  1885,  it  is  reported  by  Gordon  Hendricks  in  his  book  The  Life  and  Work  of  Thomas  Eakins  (1974) 


Stephens  claimed  that  it  was  Henry  George's  Progress  and  Poverty  which  he  read  in 

1886  that  first  started  him  thinking  of  creating  a  Utopian  state  ~  a  community  that  would 

implement  and  prove  the  legitimacy  of  Henry  George's  aims. 

With  the  first  reading  of  Progress  and  Poverty  I  knew  I  had  found  the 
answer  to  the  problems  which  had  perplexed  me  and  haunted  me  all  my 
life.  I  could  not  put  the  book  down  unfinished  and  with  triumphant 
certainty  that  has  never  since  known  a  misgiving  or  a  doubt  I  closed  the 
glorious  final  chapter,  "The  Problem  of  Individual  Life,"  in  my  judgment 
the  highest  flight  of  religious  thought  in  literature,  with  the  knowledge  that 
there  was  a  purpose  in  Uving,  a  work  worth  doing,  that  should  exceed  the 
utmost  of  my  childish  dreams  and  hopes.  ^^ 

While  never  forgetting  the  initial  impact  of  George's  book,  Stephens  put  his  visionary 
aspirations  on  hold  in  order  to  establish  his  career.  Stephens  understood  the  realities  of 
his  economic  situation,  aware  that  he  must  focus  on  getting  financially  grounded  before 
being  able  to  realize  his  dream.    Thus,  following  completion  of  his  studies  at  the 
Pennsylvania  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  in  1885,  Stephens  joined  some  of  his  fellow 
classmates  and  began  a  Philadelphia  decorative  arts  business,  Stephens,  Cooper  &  Co., 
specializing  in  plaster  casting,  stone  and  wood  carving,  and  decorative  marble  work.  The 
firm,  run  by  a  team  of  four  artists  -  Frank  Stephens,  Colin  Campbell  Cooper,  Jr.,  Jesse 
Godley,  and  Walter  J.  Cunningham^'*  --  was  involved  in  numerous  projects,  among  them 
the  decorative  work  of  the  Philadelphia  City  Hall.  The  firm  prospered,  due  in  large  part 

that  Frank  Stephens  was  one  of  the  antagonists  in  Eakins'  troubles  in  1886.  Stephens  apparently  played  an 
instrumental  role  in  the  dismissal  of  Eakins  from  the  Academy  faculty  in  1886,  making  the  claim  that 
Eakins  had  been  behaving  inmiorally,  exposing  nude  models  to  his  students. 
l^Frank  Stephens  Autobiography,  4,  Arden  Papers. 

I'^Stationery  of  the  Stephens  Cooper  and  Co.  firm  was  found  in  Frank  Stephens'  papers  at  the  Pennsylvania 
Academy  of  Fine  Arts.  The  two  letters  found  were  dated  January  16,  1890  and  January  27,  1903, 
respectively.  The  letterhead  of  the  firm  is  on  each  of  these  letters,  showing  that  the  firm  was  in  existence 
from  as  early  as  1890  until  after  Arden  was  underway.  The  letters  also  show  that  the  firm  changed 
locations  from  1 13  North  12th  Sfreet  in  1890  to  15  South  18th  Street  in  1903. 


to  its  manufacturing  of  terra  cotta,  a  highly  popular  architectural  material  at  the  turn  of 
the  century.  ^^ 

Between  1886  and  1900,  Stephens  spread  himself  between  his  career  and  the 
promulgation  of  Henry  George's  economic  philosophies.  Stephens  became  a  personal 
friend  of  Henry  George,  a  friendship  that  lasted  until  1897  when  George  died  in  the 
middle  of  his  second  New  York  City  mayoralty  campaign.  George's  death,  however,  did 
little  to  deter  Stephens  from  his  efforts  to  disseminate  George's  system  of  economic 
reform.  Stephens  was  particularly  active  in  the  Philadelphia  area  where  he  was  a  member 
of  the  Philadelphia  Single  Tax  Society,  convincing  throngs  of  Philadelphians  of  the 
importance  and  worthiness  of  George's  philosophies.  Among  the  Philadelphia  society's 
accomplishments  was  the  organization  of  the  Shakespeare  Club  which  was  developed  as 
a  means  of  training  Single  Taxers  to  become  competent  public  speakers  and,  thus,  more 
effective  in  their  efforts  to  generate  support  for  Henry  George's  Single  Tax  strategy. ^^ 
Stephens'  participation  in  other  Philadelphia  professional  and  social  clubs  also  helped 
him  to  further  increase  the  number  of  Single  Tax  devotees.  Among  the  more  zealous  of 
the  Philadelphia  Georgists  (as  Single  Tax  enthusiasts  became  known),  was  the  notable 
architect  William  L.  Price. 

William  L.  Price 

William  Lightfoot  Price  was  bom  in  1861  in  Wallingford,  Pennsylvania  to  James  Martin 
Price  and  Sarah  Lightfoot  Price  (Plate  3).  By  the  time  that  he  and  Frank  Stephens  were 
introduced,  Price  had  an  established  architecture  practice  which  was  concentrated  on 

^^Frank  Stephens  Autobiography,  Arden  Papers,  5. 
l^Ibid.,  8. 


residential  design  work  throughout  the  Philadelphia  region.    The  success  of  Price's  fmn, 
however,  was  not  enough  to  quell  the  general  dissatisfaction  with  American  society  that 
he  shared  with  Stephens.    Despite  the  fact  that  his  practice  was  being  fueled  by  the 
enormous  wealth  generated  in  America  at  this  time.  Price  could  not  ignore  the  disparities 
that  were  resulting  from  this  increasing  wealth.    Disturbed  by  the  state  of  American 
society.  Price  became  concerned  with  ways  he  could  contribute  both  his  financial  success 
and  his  design  skills  to  the  resolution  of  some  of  America's  most  plaguing  issues. 
Price's  generous,  idealistic  ways  were  best  described  by  Katharine  Ross,  one  of  the 
trustees  of  Arden,  who  referred  to  him  as  "a  great  humanitarian  who  strove,  not  for  the 
need  of  a  day,  but  for  all  the  future;  whose  love  of  justice  extended  to  all  the  sojourners 
on  this  fruitful  earth. .."^^ 

Before  embarking  on  Arden,  WUl  Price  had  been  involved  in  architecture  for  over  twenty 
years.  He  began  work  in  1878  at  the  age  of  17  in  the  office  of  Philadelphia  architect 
Addison  Hutton.  Three  years  later  he  joined  up  with  his  brother  Frank,  who  had  been 
working  in  the  Philadelphia  office  of  architect  Frank  Fumess,  to  establish  their  own 
practice.  Together,  the  two  brothers  rode  the  wave  of  suburban  development  in 
Philadelphia,  sustaining  a  successful  residential  design  practice  well  into  the  1890s.i^ 

The  first  important  commission  attained  by  the  Price  Brothers  firm  was  in  1888  when 
they  were  asked  to  be  the  architects  for  Wendell  and  Smith,  a  Philadelphia  real  estate 
development  company,  in  their  speculative  residential  project  in  Wayne,  Pennsylvania, 
along  the  Main  Line  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad.    For  this  project,  the  Price  Brothers 

^"^Katherine  F.  Ross,  "The  Most  Unforgettable  Character  I've  Met,"  February  8,  1949. 

l^Geoige  E.  Thomas,  "William  L.  Price  (1861-1916),  BuUder  of  Men  and  of  Buildings,"  (Ph.D.  diss., 

University  of  Pennsylvania,  1975). 


designed  a  number  of  prototype  homes,  all  of  similar  detail  and  material,  utilizing  local 
stone  on  the  first  floor  and  wooden  clapboard  or  shingles  above  (Plate  4).i^  These 
houses,  designed  for  Wayne's  quarter-acre  lots,  were  to  be  situated  in  the  middle  of  each 
lot,  set  well  off  the  street.  For  its  time,  the  Wayne  development  was  considered  quite 
large,  with  several  square  miles  of  roads.  All  roads  of  the  community  were  at  right 
angles,  creating  an  ordered,  uniform  grid  plan. 20 

The  Prices'  involvement  with  Wendell  and  Smith  on  suburban  developments  continued 
into  the  1890s  with  work  on  Overbrook  Farms.^^  Overbrook,  a  168-acre  development 
near  City  Line  and  Lancaster  Avenues  between  58th  and  68th  Streets,  got  underway  in 
1892.  This  community,  like  Wayne,  was  also  laid  out  in  a  grid  pattern.  Appealing  to  a 
conservative  middle-class  market,  Overbrook  offered  a  variety  of  single  family  and  semi- 
detached house  designs.  The  Price  Brothers  offered  homes  that  were  a  bit  more  refined 
than  those  at  Wayne.  The  Overbrook  homes  tended  to  be  cut  stone  on  the  first  floor  with 
stucco  and  half-timbering  on  the  upper  floors.  The  stone  of  the  homes  in  Overbrook  was 
more  carefully  cut  than  that  at  Wayne,  contributing  to  the  comparatively  polished  quality 
of  the  Overbrook  homes  (Plate  6).  The  Overbrook  homes  illustrate  Price's  method  of 
breaking  up  walls  into  many  planes  to  allow  for  more  windows,  thereby  letting  in  as 
much  light  as  possible,  an  important  characteristic  of  Price's  house  designs.22 

Into  the  1890s  Will  Price  was  also  involved  in  designing  large,  elaborate  suburban 
mansions  for  the  Philadelphia  aristocracy,  providing  him  with  some  of  his  most  lucrative 

l^ibid.,  67-7  L 
2lrbid.,  73-4. 


and  most  well-known  commissions.  Among  these  commissions  were  estates  for  Alan 
Wood  of  Alan  Wood  Steel  in  1892  (Plate  5),  Edward  Bok  of  Curtis  Publishing  Company 
in  1898,  and  financier  John  Gibnore  in  1899.23  For  these  prominent  clients.  Price 
designed  grand,  opulent  homes  that  conspicuously  portrayed  their  wealth. 

In  1893,  at  age  32,  Price  moved  with  his  wife  Emma  from  a  rowhouse  in  West 
Philadelphia  to  a  home  of  his  own  design  in  the  suburb  of  Overbrook  (Plate  6).24   It  was 
in  Overbrook  that  Price's  social  progressivism  seems  to  have  first  taken  hold.  By  this 
time  Price  had  joined  up  with  the  Philadelphia  Single  Tax  Society  and  had  begun  to 
participate  in  the  society's  crusade  to  raise  social  consciousness  of  the  economic 
injustices  and  to  initiate  change.  The  Prices'  Overbrook  home  became  a  center  of  activity 
for  Single  Taxers  and  the  site  of  Philadelphia  Shakespeare  Club  rehearsals.25  In  fact,  the 
Price's  second  Overbrook  home,  known  as  "Kelty"  (Plate  7),  was  designed  with  a  stage 
on  the  third  floor  where  these  Shakespearean  performances  would  be  held.^^ 

Price's  advocacy  of  reform  eventually  culminated  in  the  establishment  of  two 
experimental  conmiunities:  Arden  in  1900  and  Rose  Valley  in  1901.  These  communities 
were  designed  not  to  achieve  the  most  valuable,  most  marketable  plan,  as  was  the  case  in 
Wayne  and  Overbrook,  but  to  achieve  a  desired  social  behavior.  Rose  Valley  was  Price's 
own  Utopian  venture  that  he  undertook  in  Delaware  County,  Pennsylvania,  roughly 
fifteen  miles  west  of  Philadelphia.  Although  conceived  as  a  community  intended  to 

^^George  E.  Thomas,  "William  L.  Price,  Architect:  "Prophet  Without  Honor,"  in  A  Poor  Son  of  Heaven.. 

A  Good  Sort  of  Earth  (Chadds  Ford,  PA:  Brandywine  Conservancy,  Inc.,  1983),  23. 

23Thomas,  "WUliam  L.Price  (1861-1916),  BuUder  of  Men  and  of  BuUdings,"  1975.  WiU  and  Emma 

Price's  first  home  in  Overbrook  was  at  6334  Sherwood  Road. 

^^Susanna  Martin  Price,  "The  Story  of  the  Price  Lightfoot  Family,"  1929. 

26Thomas,  "WUliamL.  Price  (1861-1916).  BuUder  of  Men  and  of  BuUdings,"  1975.  After  six  years  of 

living  at  6334  Sherwood  Road,  Will  and  Emma  moved  to  "Kelty"  in  1899  and  lived  there  for  three  years 

until  they  moved  to  Rose  Valley  in  1902. 


integrate  economic  classes.  Rose  Valley  was  not,  like  Arden,  established  as  a  Single  Tax 
colony  with  an  entirely  restructured  system  of  land  ownership.  Instead,  Rose  Valley  was 
founded  principally  as  a  craftsman  community,  with  its  purpose  being  "the  manufacture 
of  structures,  articles,  materials  and  products  involving  artistic  handicraft."^'^ 

Rose  Valley  and  Arden  were  being  developed  simultaneously  and,  due  to  Price's 
involvement  in  both,  shared  some  of  the  same  fundamental  ideas,  namely  the  William 
Morris-inspired  emphasis  on  the  arts  and  crafts.  Also  like  Arden,  the  buildings  at  Rose 
Valley  consisted  of  a  combination  of  rehabilitation  as  well  as  new  construction.  Built  in 
an  abandoned  miU  town,  Rose  Valley  adapted  existing  buildings  and  ruins  to  new  uses; 
die  old  mill  was  transformed  into  craft  shops,  and  the  former  tenant  houses  were 
converted  into  Rose  Valley's  "Guest  House." 

All  of  Rose  Valley's  buildings  demonstrated  Price's  new  mode  of  architecture  (Plates  8- 
11).  Price  left  behind  the  historicized  architecture  utilized  in  many  of  his  suburban 
mansions  and  looked  toward  a  new  architectural  form,  one  which  emphasized  simplicity, 
regional  contextualism,  use  of  local  materials  and  artsmanship.  Price  realized  that  the 
most  appropriate  architecture  was  not  borrowed  from  the  past  but  developed  according  to 
society's  current  needs.  Determined  to  popularize  his  new  architectural  manner.  Price 
began  to  write  more  prolifically,  publishing  books  and  contributing  articles  to  national 
periodicals  such  as  the  American  Architect  and  Building  News,  House  and  Garden,  The 
Craftsman  and  Ladies '  Home  Journal?-^   In  his  writing.  Price  argued  for  an  architecture 

27Ayres,  "A  Poor  Sort  of  Heaven;  A  Good  Sort  of  Earth,"  15.  William  Price  purchased  the  land  for  Rose 
VaUeyon  April  29, 1901. 

^^William  L.  Price,  "Choosing  Simple  Materials  for  the  House"  in  Country  Homes  and  Gardens  of 
Moderate  Cost.  ed.  by  Charles  F.  Osborne  (Philadelphia:  John  C.  Winston  Co.,  1907);  Wilham  L.  Price, 
"Decorative  Treatment  of  Plaster  Walls,"  The  BrickbuiUer,  Vol.  20,  181-90,  191 1;  WilUam  L.  Price,  "The 
House  of  the  Democrat,"77z£'  Craftsman.  Vol.  21,  2,  191 1;  William  L.  Price,  "Possibilities  of  Concrete 


that  did  not  mirror  the  past  but  that  was  suitable  for  twentieth  century  American  society. 
In  1907  Price  wrote  that  "you  cannot  pluck  up  your  English  or  Italian  or  Colonial  by  the 
roots  and  plant  it  here,  there  and  everywhere  and  get  results  that  are  worth  while. 
Architecture  to  be  fit,  must  fit  need  and  purpose  and  environment  -  fit  the  living  purpose 
not  the  dead  precedent."^^  The  buildings  designed  for  Rose  Valley  and  Arden 
demonstrate  Price's  use  of  this  more  appropriate  architecture. 

Like  so  many  of  the  other  Utopian  communities  founded  during  this  period,  Rose  Valley 
survived  only  a  short  time.  By  1910,  Rose  Valley  faced  insurmountable  financial  strains, 
teetered  on  the  brink  of  bankruptcy  and  was  forced  to  close  its  furniture  and  craft  shops.^o 
Thanks  to  sympathetic,  deep-pocketed  supporters  of  the  community,  all  of  the 
outstanding  loans  on  Rose  Valley  were  paid  off  leaving  Price  free  of  any  personal 
financial  debt^i    While  Rose  Valley's  buildings  still  exist  today,  and  the  community 
continues  as  an  artists'  center,  it  does  not  carry  on  as  the  organized  Utopia  that  it  was 
originally  intended  to  be.  Due  in  part  to  Rose  Valley's  decline,  however.  Price  began  to 
give  more  time  to  the  development  of  Arden  in  1909  as  the  discussion  of  Arden's 
architecture  illustrates.^^ 

Construction  from  the  Standpoint  of  Utility  and  Art,"  American  Architect  and  Building  News,  89,  1579, 

March  3,  1906. 

2^ce,  "Choosing  Simple  Materials  for  the  House"  in  Country  Homes  and  Gardens  of  Moderate  Cost. 

30Ayres,  "A  Poor  Sort  of  Heaven;  A  Good  Sort  of  Earth,"  21. 

31  Ibid. 

32price's  position  as  a  trustee  of  Arden  kept  him  involved  in  the  progress  of  that  community  despite  his 

apparent  affinity  for  Rose  Valley.  Therefore,  as  Rose  VaUey  experienced  its  decline,  there  is  evidence  that 

Price  shifted  his  emphasis  somewhat,  becoming  more  active  in  the  design  of  dwellings  in  Arden, 

particularly  after  1908. 


Purchase  of  the  Derrickson  Farm 

The  Derrickson  property,  a  162-acre  farm  six  miles  north  of  Wihnington,  was  the  area 
chosen  by  Stephens  and  Price  as  a  suitable  location  for  their  Utopian  community  (Plates 
12-13, 15).  Surrounded  by  woodlands  on  all  sides  and  extending  along  Naaman's  Creek, 
the  property  provided  the  bucoUc  setting  so  essential  to  the  intentions  of  Arden's 
founders.  The  proximity  of  the  property  to  the  new  tracks  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Railroad  was  also  critical  because  it  afforded  city  residents  from  Philadelphia  and 
Wilmington  easy  access  to  the  new  community. ^3 

The  establishment  of  Arden  followed  on  the  heels  of  Stephens'  attempt  in  1895  to 
convert  the  entire  State  of  Delaware  into  a  Single  Tax  state.^^  Stephens  thought  that  if  he 
could  convince  one  state  to  adopt  the  Single  Tax  he  would  be  able  to  demonstrate  the 
merits  of  this  form  of  economic  system  and  see  it  become  the  way  of  the  future.  After 
Stephens'  rather  overzealous  attempt  to  impose  Henry  George's  ideologies  upon  the  state 
of  Delaware  proved  to  be  futile,  landing  him  and  his  Single  Tax  accomplices  in  jail, 
Stephens  resolved  himself  to  the  smaller,  more  realistic  plan  of  Arden. 

With  the  design  knowledge  of  planner  and  architect  William  Price,  Stephens'  Single  Tax 
vision  finally  began  to  come  to  fruition  in  1900  with  the  purchase  of  the  Derrickson 
Farm.35  The  162-acre  farm  was  purchased  from  Jacob  Derrickson  on  June  12, 1 900.^6 
This  property,  put  in  Stephens  name,  was  purchased  for  $9,000;  $2,500  was  paid  in  cash 

^^Atlas  of  New  Castle  County  Delaware  (Philadelphia:  G.  Wm.  Baist,  1893).  Interestingly,  the  railroad  is 

somewhat  of  a  paradox.  One  of  the  largest  industries  of  the  late  nineteenth  century,  the  railroad,  on  the  one 

hand,  contributed  to  the  growing  economic  disparity  in  this  country,  but  it  also  provided  transportation 

access  to  emerging  Utopian  communities  such  as  Arden  which  sought  to  provide  refuge  from  this  type  of 

concentrated  wealth. 

3'^Frank  Stephens  Autobiography,  Arden  Papers,  6. 

35Register  of  Deeds,  Wilmington,  DE,  Deed  Book  V21,  84,  January  13,  1908. 

^^Register  of  Deeds,  Wihnington,  DE,  Deed  Book  G17,  345,  June  12,  1900. 


with  the  remainder  in  a  mortgage.  ^"^   At  the  time  the  Derrickson  Farm  was  purchased  in 
1900  there  were  only  a  few  buildings  existing  on  the  property:  a  farmhouse,  bam  (Plate 
14),  and  various  small  outbuildings. ^^  In  accord  with  Will  Price's  values  to  preserve 
regional  character,  these  buildings  were  not  demoUshed  but  converted  into  new  uses  and 
adapted  into  the  community  of  Arden. 

The  establishment  of  Arden  would  have  been  nearly  impossible  had  it  not  been  for  the 
financial  support  of  Joseph  Pels  (1853-1914)  a  Philadelphia  soap  manufacturer  and 
Single  Tax  advocate.  Pels,  heir  to  the  Pels-Naptha  Soap  fortune,  played  a  critical  role  in 
Arden  from  its  inception,  providing  the  financial  resources  necessary  to  see  the  project 
off  the  ground.  A  proponent  of  the  teachings  of  Henry  George,  Pels  spent  his  life 
devoted  to  the  elimination  of  poverty  and  to  the  provision  of  work  for  the  unemployed. 
His  position  of  wealth  allowed  him  to  be  the  financial  backer  for  a  number  of 
experimental  communities.  In  addition  to  several  communities  in  England,  Pels  was  a 
contributor  to  Pairhope,  Alabama  --  America's  first  Single  Tax  colony  --  founded  five 
years  before  Arden.^^  To  Arden,  Pels  also  gave  frequent  donations,  without  which  the 
town  may  not  have  been  able  to  survive.^*^ 


^^Discussions  with  Joan  Ware  Colgan,  December  1992. 

39 Arthur  Dudden,  Joseph  Fels  and  the  Single  Tax  Movement  (Philadelphia,  PA:  Temple  Univ.  Press, 


^Arden  Club  Talk,  February  1909  and  March/ April  1909.  Both  of  these  papers  report  on  the  generous  gift 

made  by  Fels.  The  first  gift  was  in  January  when  he  paid  off  a  portion  of  the  mortgage  thus  freeing  up  35 

acres  of  land  on  the  Sherwood  side  for  addtional  development.  Then,  again  in  February,  Fels  contributed 

$5,000  for  Arden's  building  efforts. 


Social  and  Economic  Objectives  of  Frank  Stephens  and  William  Price 

Brought  together  by  their  mutual  interest  in  Henry  George's  Single  Tax  system  and  their 
shared  passion  for  the  arts.  Price  and  Stephens  made  a  good  team  --  Stephens  the  dreamer 
and  Price  the  more  grounded  professional. 

Stephens'  and  Price's  plan  for  Arden  was  founded  on  the  notion  that  economic 

circumstances  had  to  first  be  rectified  before  social  conditions  could  improve: 

We  had  learned  William  Morris'  truth  that  nothing  can  be  done  for  Art 
until  we  have  bridged  the  terrible  gulf  between  the  rich  and  poor.  We 
were  so  disgusted  with  civilization  that  we  determined  then  and  there  to  go 
out  into  the  open  and  make  a  better  one...^^ 

Thus,  treating  Arden  as  their  social  ideal.  Price  and  Stephens  implemented  Henry 

George's  economic  principles  at  Arden,  believing  as  George  did  that  "the  earth  is  the 

common  heritage  of  all  mankind,"  and  that  progress  and  happiness  were  only  truly 

possible  if  men  were  given  equal  access  to  the  earth  for  their  use. 

While  it  was  the  intention  of  Price  and  Stephens  to  deed  tiiis  land  to  humanity  forever,42 
Arden  was  set  up  as  a  trusteeship,  in  keeping  with  Georgist  principles.  In  October  1901 
the  property  was  put  into  the  hands  of  Arden's  first  trustees:  Frank  Stephens,  William 
Price  and  Frank  Martin  (a  member  of  Price's  Philadelphia  architectural  fmn).43  This 
form  of  land  ownership  was  considered  by  Price  and  Stephens  to  be  far  superior  to 
private  land  ownership  because  it  allowed  for  the  community  as  a  whole,  rather  than  a 

^^"Arden  Book,"  1992,  5.  This  statement  was  taken  from  Stephens'  address  to  the  International  Conference 

on  the  Taxation  of  Land  held  at  Oxford  University  in  1923. 

42studs  Terkel,  American  Dreams:  Lost  and  Found  (NY:  Pantheon  Books,  1980),  288.  In  this  book, 

Elizabeth  Ross,  a  resident  of  Arden  and  the  daughter  of  Katherine  Ross  (one  of  the  early  trustees  of  Arden), 

gives  a  concise,  three  sentence  description  of  Arden:  "Frank  Stephens,  who  was  an  actor  and  lecturer,  made 

some  money  in  the  terra  cotta  business.  He  took  the  money,  and  with  a  Philadelphia  architect,  bought  this 

160  acre  farm  in  Delaware.  They  deeded  it  to  humanity  forever." 

"^^Register  of  Deeds,  Wilmington,  DE,  Deed  Book  V18,  36,  October  17,  1901. 


single  family  or  corporation,  to  benefit  from  appreciating  land  values.  They  believed  in 
Henry  George's  conviction  that  by  reforming  land  ownership  practices,  poverty  could  be 
avoided:  "A  civilization  is  possible  in  which  the  poorest  could  have  all  the  comforts  and 
conveniences  now  enjoyed  by  the  rich;  in  which  prisons  and  almshouses  would  be 
needless,  and  charitable  societies  unthought  of."^ 

Arden  was  structured  so  residents  were  granted  99-year  renewable  leases  on  their  lots. 
Lot  improvements  were  to  have  no  bearing  on  the  rental  rates  assigned  to  the  lots. 
Annual  rents  on  the  individual  parcels  were  to  cover  the  "Single  Tax"  on  the  land  and  the 
public  services  of  the  community.  Any  surplus  revenues  were  to  be  used  to  make 
community  improvements.  This  land  system,  implemented  in  Arden,  recognized  the 
common  right  of  all  to  use  of  the  land  and  ensured  that  land  speculation  was  never  to 
occur  in  Arden. 

Once  the  economic  issues  had  been  addressed.  Price  and  Stephens  turned  to  William 
Morris  for  direction  regarding  the  social  organization  of  the  community.  From  Morris, 
Stephens  and  Price  borrowed  the  concept  of  creating  a  conmiunity  of  craftsmen  that 
would  gain  their  creative  inspiration  by  working  within  an  environment  dominated  by 
music,  drama  and  other  arts.  Basing  the  social  organization  of  Arden  on  the  craft  guild, 
the  community  was  broken  down  into  medieval  style  guilds,  each  focusing  on  a  specific 
area  of  artistic,  social  or  cultural  activity  within  the  community.  The  different  Arden 
"gilds"  included  the  Athletic  Gild,  Musicians'  Gild,  Players'  Gild,  Craftsmen's  Gild  and 
Scholars'  Gild. 

^ Arden  Leaves,  No\emheT  1910. 


With  the  tenets  of  Henry  George  and  William  Morris  in  place,  Price  and  Stephens  sought 
to  achieve  heightened  individualism,  freedom,  harmony  and  cooperation.  Furthermore, 
they  wanted  to  ensure  that  the  community  was  non-restrictive,  inviting  people  of  any 
class,  race  or  religious  affiliation  to  come  to  Arden. 

At  Arden,  not  only  did  Price  and  Stephens  want  to  provide  a  more  enjoyable  lifestyle  for 

themselves,  but  they  wanted  to  demonstrate  a  better  way  of  life  for  all,  even  those  in  the 

city.  Unlike  most  nineteenth  century  suburbs,  Arden  was  not  merely  turning  its  back  on 

the  city  and  all  of  its  problems.  Ardenites  acknowledged  the  attributes  of  the  countryside 

and  the  remedial  qualities  of  nature,  but  they  never  forgot  the  more  dismal  conditions  of 

the  city  still  in  desperate  need  of  change. 

The  country  means  much.  It  promises  health,  the  grandeur  of  nature,  the 
sublimities  of  rest  and  tranquility.  But  it  is  the  peace  and  the  silence  of  the 
armistice.  The  battle  awaits.  In  the  city  is  the  multitude,  the  multitude 
who  knows  no  rest  from  exacting  labor  who  know  no  tranquility  amid  the 
[  ]  of  the  bUnd  machine.'^^ 

The  achievement  of  all  of  the  goals  set  forth  by  Price  and  Stephens  was  hardly 
immediate.  As  the  evolution  of  the  planning  and  the  architecture  illustrates,  it  took  many 
years  for  them  to  see  the  fruits  of  their  labor.  Nonetiieless,  remaining  committed  to 
Arden  and  their  cause,  Stephens,  Price  and  the  other  residents  of  Arden  never  let  their 
energy  and  ambitions  subside.  They  were  always  campaigning,  hoping  to  encourage 
others  to  join  in  their  fight  and  to  advocate  the  alternative  lifestyle  that  was  being 
developed  in  Arden.  A  message,  to  'those  who  have,'  appeared  in  the  Arden  Leaves  in 
October  1911:  "Upon  the  foundation  of  a  just  communal  land  tenure,  as  preached  by 
Henry  George,  we  are  making  in  Arden,  slowly  and  thoroughly  a  working  model  of  a 

^^Arden  Leaves,  January  1910. 


civilization  which  shall  know  more  of  the  beauty  of  life  and  art  than  we  have  found  in  the 
world  outside." 

Price  and  Stephens  attempted  at  Arden  to  prove  that  the  implementation  of  George's 
ideologies,  in  conjunction  with  a  revival  of  the  arts  and  crafts,  were  enough  to  solve  the 
ills  of  American  society. 

Early  Residents  of  Arden 

Due  to  the  variety  of  social  and  economic  goals  hoped  to  be  achieved  at  Arden,  the 
community  attracted  a  diverse  group  of  people.  For  some  die  notion  of  tiie  Single  Tax 
was  of  utmost  importance  in  their  decision  to  go  to  Arden,  whUe  for  others  Arden 
represented  a  haven  where  they  as  artists  would  be  encouraged  to  create,  inspired  not 
only  by  the  natural  surroundings  but  by  others  living  around  them  with  a  similarly  artistic 
orientation.  More  often  tiian  not,  people  were  lured  to  Arden  because  it  represented  an 
alternative  to  urban  living.  Arden  was  a  weekend  or  vacation  destination  for  some,  while 
for  others  it  was  more  of  a  year-round  living  situation.  In  short,  Arden  became  home  to 
those  looking  for  change. 

Among  the  most  notable  people  known  to  have  resided  in  Arden  for  a  time  were  the 
celebrated  author  Upton  Sinclair  (1878-1968),  poet  Harry  Kemp  (1883-1960)  and 
communist  Ella  Reeve  Bloor  (1862-1951),  exemplifying  the  type  of  progressive  tiiinkers 
attiacted  to  the  community.  Sinclair  tiirough  his  novels  and  Kemp  through  his  poetry 
dealt  with  subjects  of  modem  life,  articulating  their  commitment  to  the  cause  of  the 
impoverished  and  thereby  explaining  their  attraction  to  Arden,  a  community  with  one  of 


its  principal  objectives  being  the  elimination  of  poverty ."^^    Ella  Reeve  Bloor,  commonly 
known  as  "Mother  Bloor,"  was  attracted  to  Arden  because  of  the  town's  commitment  to 
individualism.  A  proclaimed  communist,  Bloor  was  interested  in  living  in  Arden  because 
it  encouraged  people  to  be  free  thinkers.'*^ 

Poet  Harry  Kemp  described  Arden  in  1911  as  consisting  of  "Single  Taxers,  Anarchists, 
Socialists,  Communists  —  folk  of  every  shade  of  radical  opinion...  who  here  strove  to 
escape  the  galling  mockeries  of  civilisation  and  win  back  again  to  pastoral  simplicity."'*^ 
Arden  resident  Scott  Nearing,  an  economics  professor  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania, 
gave  a  similar  portrait  of  Arden  in  1913,  describing  it  as  having  a  "tolerant  ideological 
atmosphere...  with  Socialists  and  single-taxers,  and  anarchists,  and  all  kinds  of  people... 

'^^Before  arriving  at  Arden,  Sinclair  and  Kemp  had  both  been  in  search  of  change  for  a  considerable  time, 
busily  seeking  alternative  living  situations.  Before  learning  of  Arden  in  1910,  Upton  Sinclair  had  lived  in 
several  alternative  lifestyle  communities,  including  Helicon  Home  Colony  in  Englewood,  New  Jersey,  his 
own  attempt  at  an  alternative  community.  The  Helicon  Home  Colony  was  begun  by  Sinclair  in  1906, 
intended  to  be  a  cooperative  home  situation  where  people  could  share  in  cooking  and  child  care  and  have 
time  enough  for  themselves  to  spend  on  their  creative  endeavours.  Due  to  a  fire  which  destroyed  Sinclair's 
dream,  the  colony  was  short  lived,  lasting  only  four  months  until  March  of  1907.  Following  this  attempt  at 
his  own  Utopian  community,  he  bounced  all  over  the  country,  finally  ending  up  in  Fairhope,  Alabama,  the 
first  single  tax  colony  ever  established.  The  Spring  of  1910  brought  him  to  Arden. 

Harry  Kemp  took  a  similarly  indirect  path  to  Arden,  taking  time  out  to  experience  other  Utopian  or  semi- 
utopian  communities  along  the  way.  Kemp's  first  stop  was  at  Elbert  Hubbard's  Royaoft,  an  arts  and  crafts 
community  in  East  Aurora,  New  York.  In  1905,  he  spent  time  at  Bemarr  MacFadden's  Physical  Culture 
City  in  Helmetta,  New  Jersey,  an  extremist  community  that  emphasized  perfect  physical  health,  where 
nudity  or  at  least  semi-nudity  was  the  norm.   And  in  1910,  before  coming  to  Arden,  he  was  at  the  Home 
Colony  in  Washington,  an  anarchist  community  whose  residents  practiced  free  love. 
^^Bloor,  We  Are  Many,  83-4.  It  is  presumed  that  Ella  Reeve  Bloor  was  the  one  who  introduced  Upton 
Sinclair  to  Arden.  She  and  Sinclair  had  apparently  known  one  another  before  1910  when  Sinclair  arrived  in 
Arden.  In  her  autobiography,  Bloor  explained  that  following  the  pubhcation  of  The  Jungle  in  1906, 
President  Roosevelt  organized  a  commission  to  investigate  the  Chicago  stockyards  to  see  if  what  had  been 
written  by  Sinclair  was  in  fact  the  truth.  Bloor  reported  that  since  Sinclair  could  not  make  the  trip  to 
Chicago  he  asked  her  to  take  his  place  and  to  accompany  the  commission  there.  Curiously,  it  was  this  trip 
in  1906  that  gave  her  the  name  "Bloor."  She  traveled  to  Chicago  with  another  investigator  Richard  Bloor, 
and  for  the  purposes  of  traveling  she  felt  it  was  more  appropriate  to  travel  as  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bloor.  After  this 
point,  the  name  stuck.    Interestingly,  it  was  this  trip  made  to  Chicago  that  proved  Sinclair's  reports  to  be 
accurate,  eventually  leading  to  the  passage  of  the  Pure  Food  and  Drug  and  Meat  Inspection  Acts  of  1906. 
^°Harry  Kemp,  Tramping  on  Life:  An  Autobiograpical  Narrative,  (NY:  Boni  and  Liveright,  1922),  347. 


and  conservatives  with  no  ideas  at  all.'"^^   Clearly,  homogenity  was  not  to  be  found  in 

Arden.  There  was  a  mixture  of  nature  worshippers,  spiritualists,  political  liberals,  and 

even  businessmen.  The  characteristic  which  most  every  Ardenite  shared,  however,  was 

the  ability  to  dream. 

It  is  true  we  are  dreamers,  we  of  Arden,  and  why  should  we  not  go  on 
dreaming  who,  having  had  some  dreams,  say  of  a  village  without  a 
landlord,  of  a  social  life  equal  alike  to  rich  and  poor,  of  an  art  life  neither 
the  toy  of  the  wealthy  nor  the  prostitution  of  the  gifted,  have  already  seen 
those  dreams  come  true?^^ 

49 Arden  Film,  1970s. 
^^Arden  Leaves 



Due  to  its  characteristically  rustic  landscape  and  modest  architecture,  Arden  does  not  get 
the  acclaim  that  it  deserves  as  an  important  early  planned  American  community.  This 
impression  of  Arden,  however,  fails  to  recognize  the  community's  physical  core 
attributes.    The  cohesive  physical  plan  of  Arden,  which  has  changed  relatively  little  over 
the  past  90  years,  was  one  of  the  most  important  tools  used  to  achieve  the  social  and 
economic  goals  of  Stephens  and  Price,  and  is  one  of  the  primary  reasons  that  Arden' s 
unique  social  characteristics  are  still  evident  today.  Stephens  and  Price  used  the  plan  as  a 
physical  model  to  reinforce  their  Single  Tax  aims,  designing  Arden  to  correspond  with 
the  aspects  of  communal  land  ownership  promoted  by  Henry  George.  The  variety  of 
elements  incorporated  into  Arden 's  physical  plan  were  to  ensure  that  residents  utilized  the 
outdoors  to  the  fullest,  that  dwellings  remained  small,  that  sociability  and  neighboriiness 
were  developed  through  constant  social  interaction,  and  that  cooperation  was  encouraged 
by  providing  indoor  and  outdoor  common  areas  intended  for  shared  community  activities. 

The  physical  plan  of  Arden,  attributed  to  William  Price,  was  formally  in  place  by  1910 
(Plate  16). 51    Price  took  a  pragmatic  approach  to  the  plan,  making  certain  that  it  was 
rational,  economical  and  suited  to  the  residents'  needs  and  the  community's  goals.  Arden 
may  not  have  shared  qualities  of  the  upscale,  manicured  suburbs  characteristic  of  late 
nineteenth  and  early  twentieth  century  America,  but  this  is  because  Arden  had  different 
goals.  Unlike  residential  developments  such  as  Overbrook  or  Wayne,  Price's  earlier 

51  Arden  Map,  1910.  The  earliest  known  plan  of  Arden  dates  from  1910.  This  map  shows  all  roads,  paths, 
common  areas,  and  leaseholds. 


communities,  Arden  was  not  a  speculative  real  estate  venture  but  a  social  experiment,  and 
therefore  its  plan  was  designed  accordingly. 

As  developed,  Arden  embodied  many  important  planning  concepts,  implemented  at  a 
time  when  town  planning  had  not  yet  formally  gotten  off  the  ground  in  America. ^^ 
Incorporated  into  Arden  were  the  progressive  planning  ideas  of  some  of  the  foremost 
landscape  designers  of  the  nineteenth  century,  in  particular,  American  landscape  designer 
Frederick  Law  Ohnsted  (1822-1903)  and  English  planner  Ebenezer  Howard  (1850-1925). 
Olmsted,  Howard,  and  Andrew  J.  Downing  before  them,  were  among  those  nineteenth 
century  landscape  enthusiasts  who  set  into  motion  the  idea  that  landscape  could  be  used 
as  a  means  of  social  reform.  Price's  careful  plan  for  Arden  suggests  that  he  too  saw  the 
landscape  as  an  effective  tool  for  bringing  about  desired  social  change. 

Ohnsted,  best  known  for  his  designs  of  Central  Park  in  New  York  City  and  other  urban 
parks  throughout  the  country,  believed  landscape  design  to  be  a  means  of  infusing  social 
change.  Olmsted  postulated  that  landscape  design  could  effectively  restore  moral  and 
social  character  of  American  society,  especially  in  American  cities  where  he  had 
witnessed  such  a  profound  change  in  social  relations,  particularly  in  the  growing  division 
between  the  classes.  Olmsted,  through  his  urban  park  designs,  urged  this  restorative 
power  of  the  landscape  and  its  impact  on  character  development,  believing  that  parks 
were  neutral  ground  where  people  of  all  different  classes  could  interact,  a  place  which 
surely  provided  relief  from  the  less  desirable  aspects  of  urban  life.^^  Arden  was  also 

^^larence  S.  Stein,  Toward  New  Towns  for  America  (Liverpool:  The  University  of  Liverpool  Press,  1951), 
12;  Christensen,  The  American  Garden  City.  It's  generally  believed  that  community  planning  did  not  get 
underway  in  America  until  around  1915  when  the  Journal  of  the  AlA  began  to  publish  some  of  the  new  war 
communities  springing  up  in  England,  especially  those  of  Raymond  Unwin. 

^^Thomas  Bender,  Toward  an  Urban  Vision  (Baltimore,  MD:  Johns  Hopkins  Univ.  Press,  1987,  orig.  ed. 
1975),  178.  In  the  chapter  entitled  "Cityscape  and  Landscape,"  Bender  presents  certain  views  which 


designed  to  be  this  type  of  a  democratic  meeting  place  where  all  could  be  on  equal 
ground,  not  separated  by  class  distinctions.^ 

Compared  to  Frederick  Law  Olmsted,  Ebenezer  Howard  was  more  of  a  planner  than  a 
landscape  designer,  but  like  Olmsted,  Howard  advocated  the  manipulation  of  a  landscape 
to  shape  social  behavior.  The  publication  of  Howard's  two  books  ~  Tomorrow:  The 
Peaceful  Path  to  Real  Reform  in  1898  and  a  revised  version  of  the  same  book  published 
as  Garden  Cities  of  Tomorrow  in  1902  --  were  the  means  by  which  Howard  transmitted 
his  planning  ideals  for  industrial  society.  Howard  was  in  large  part  responsible  for  setting 
in  motion  the  twentieth  century  town  planning  movement  both  in  England  and  in 
America.  Howard  devised  plans  according  to  his  own  understanding  that  men  are 
inherently  cooperative  and  egalitarian.  This  interest  in  cooperative  living  would  explain 
why  Howard's  planning  ideas  appealed  to  Price  and  ultimately  showed  up  in  his  plan  for 

Howard  was  part  of  the  decentralization  movement  that  advocated  the  establishment  of 
new  communities  on  virgin  sites,  detached  from  urban  centers.  These  communities, 
which  he  coined  "garden  cities"  were  considered  to  be  a  more  controlled  strategy  of 
development  than  the  furious  rate  of  growth  experienced  by  industrialized  cities  in  the 

challenge  Olmsted,  suggesting  that  his  park  designs  may  not  be  worthy  of  all  the  acclaim  that  Olmsted  has 
received.  One  of  the  writers  that  Bender  cites  is  Seymour  Mandelbaum  who  argued  that  Central  Park  was 
more  often  used  by  the  wealthy  than  by  the  lower  class.  Bender  also  cites  Jacob  Riis'  How  the  Other  Half 
Lives  (1890)  in  which  is  mentioned  the  fact  that  few  slum  children  had  ever  seen  Central  Park. 
5^1t  must  be  noted  that  some  of  Olmsted's  landscape  ideologies  are  offshoots  of  the  writings  of  A.  J. 
Downing.  It  was  Downing  who  first  introduced  to  America  the  notion  of  landscape  as  a  means  of 
impacting  social  character.    In  The  Architecture  of  Country  Houses,  first  published  in  1850,  Downing 
stated  that  "the  happiest  social  and  moral  development"  of  people  was  easily  achievable  if  they  resided 
amid  the  "peace  of  sylvan  scenes,  surrounded  by  the  perennial  freshness  of  nature,  enriched  without  and 
within  by  the  objects  of  universal  beauty  and  interest."  AJ.  Downing,  The  Architecture  of  Country  Houses 
(NY:  DaCapo  Press,  1968,  orig.  ed.  1850),  257-8. 


nineteenth  century.  In  designing  his  garden  cities,  Howard  hoped  to  slow  the  migration 
of  people  away  from  agricultural  land  to  urban  centers  by  making  country  living  more 
attractive  than  city  living. ^^ 

Like  Ohnsted  and  Howard,  Price  was  responding  to  the  physical  and  social  deterioration 
of  the  American  city  in  his  plan  for  Arden.  Living  in  Philadelphia,  Price  had  wimessed 
firsthand  the  extreme  levels  of  crime,  pollution,  disease  and  overcrowding  caused  by  the 
uncontrolled  urban  growth.  It  was  only  logical,  therefore,  that  the  physical  plan  of  Arden 
conceived  by  Price  was  to  contrast  in  every  way  possible  with  the  typical  American  city. 
Instead  it  would  provide  a  refuge  from  the  physical  chaos  and  commotion  associated  with 
the  city. 

Price  proposed  a  comprehensive  plan  for  Arden  so  that  development  would  be  controlled 
just  as  Ebenezer  Howard  had  recommended.  Howard  believed  it  was  essential  "that  there 
should  be  unity  of  design  and  purpose  --  that  [a]  town  should  be  planned  as  a  whole,  and 
not  left  to  grow  up  in  a  chaotic  manner...  A  town,  like  a  flower,  or  a  tree,  or  an  animal, 
should,  at  each  stage  of  its  growth  possess  unity,  symmetry,  completeness,  and  the  effect 
of  growth  should  never  be  to  destroy  that  unity,  but  to  give  it  greater  purposes... "^^ 

^^Carol  Christensen,  The  American  Garden  City  and  the  New  Towns  Movement  (Ann  Arbor,  MI:  UMI 
Research  Press,  1986,  orig.  ed.  1978),  1-8.  It  is  generally  assumed  that  town  planners  Henry  Wright  and 
Clarence  Stein  were  the  first  planners  to  introduce  and  implement  Ebenezer  Howard's  "garden  city" 
concepts  to  America.  The  first  American  communities  planned  by  Wright  and  Stein  that  implemented 
Howard's  ideas  were  Sunnyside  Gardens  in  Long  Island  (1924  to  1928)  and  Radbum,  New  Jersey  (1928  to 
1933).  But,  it  must  be  noted  that  Arden  preceded  these  communities  and  provided  an  even  earlier,  although 
generally  undocumented,  example  of  Howard's  "garden  city"  theories  being  applied  to  American 
community  planning.  This  being  the  case,  it  is  possible  that  Arden  may  have  played  an  influential  role  for 
Philadelphia-based  planner  Henry  Wright  in  his  designs  for  Sunnyside  and  Radbum. 
^^Ebenezer  Howard,  Garden  Cities  of  Tomorrow  (London:  Faber  and  Faber  Ltd.,  1946),  76. 


An  examination  of  the  plan  for  Arden  (Plate  16)  reveals  this  type  of  cohesive,  ordered 
design  scheme  drawn  up  by  Price.  Roads,  paths,  lot  subdivision,  and  designation  of  open 
space  were  all  carefully  considered  and  of  paramount  importance  to  Arden' s  overall  plan. 

Arden  is  bisected  by  Grubb's  Lane,  an  earlier  roadway  leading  southeast  from  the  historic 
Grubb's  Comer,  through  the  Derrickson  Farm,  toward  the  Delaware  waterfront.  This 
road  is  the  spine  of  the  conamunity,  running  through  the  middle  of  the  162-acre  property, 
dividing  it  into  two  parts:  the  Sherwood  side  to  the  west  and  the  Woodlands  side  to  the 
east.  Arden's  secondary  roads  diverge  from  this  main  axis. 

Arden' s  location  within  an  established  region  of  farmland  led  Price  to  conceive  of  a  plan 
which  utilized  natural  buffers  to  keep  the  community  contained  within  its  property 
boundaries,  giving  it  definition  within  the  sea  of  surrounding  farms.  These  buffers  are 
wooded  areas  several  hundred  yards  deep,  resembling  what  Ebenezer  Howard  in  Garden 
Cities  of  Tomorrow  referred  to  as  a  'country  belt'  or  'greenbelt'  -  an  area  of  open  space 
which  buffers  and  defines  the  town.^^  But  these  buffers  in  Arden  were  important  not 
only  as  town  boundaries  but  as  conservation  and  recreation  areas  as  well.  The  wooded 
region  along  the  west  edge  of  the  property  became  known  as  Sherwood  Forest;^^  the 
wooded  area  along  the  eastern  end  of  the  property,  through  which  Naaman's  Creek  flows, 
was  dubbed  the  Arden  Woods.  The  names  given  to  these  forested  portions  of  the 
community  help  conjure  up  notions  of  adventure  and  discovery,  appealing  to  Arden's 
artists  seeking  a  place  that  would  foster  artistic  inspiration.  The  importance  of  the 
wooded  areas  in  Price's  plan  was  likely  to  have  sprung  from  Morris'  News  From 


^^The  name  "Sherwood  Forest"  comes  from  Robin  Hood,  the  adventure  story  about  a  legendary  robber 
from  the  Middle  Ages  who  devoted  his  life  to  stealing  from  the  rich  to  give  to  the  poor.  Sherwood  Forest  is 
where  Robin  Hood  lived. 


Nowhere.  Morris  celebrated  the  woods,  suggesting  that  the  woods  were  an  essential 

component  to  his  bucolic,  Utopian  world,  providing  a  romantic  place  where  people  could 

seek  refuge: 

It  was  exceedingly  pleasant  in  the  dappled  shadow  [of  the  woods],  for  the 
day  was  growing  as  hot  as  need  be  and  the  coolness  and  shade  soothed  my 
excited  mind  into  a  condition  of  dreamy  pleasure,  so  that  I  felt  as  if  I 
should  like  to  go  on  forever  through  that  balmy  freshness.^^ 

Memoirs  of  Arden  residents  suggest  that  these  outdoor  areas  were  a  very  significant 
element  of  Arden  living.  The  poet  Harry  Kemp  recalls  Arden  as  being  "surrounded  by  a 
grove  of  trees,"  remembering  that  circular  seats  were  constructed  around  some  of  Arden's 
big  trees  where  people  sat  and  enjoyed  the  woods.^^  Naaman's  Creek,  tucked  into  the 
Arden  Woods,  was  another  important  feature  of  Arden's  landscape,  providing  another 
form  of  recreation  (Plates  17,  18).  A  swimming  hole  known  as  the  "Arden  Pool"  was 
established  by  damming  up  a  part  of  the  creek,  providing  another  favorite  summer  retreat 
for  Arden  residents  (see  Appendix  E  for  a  map). 

In  laying  out  the  lots  within  the  town.  Price  anticipated  a  contemporary  land  use  strategy 
known  in  today's  planning  jargon  as  "cluster  development,"  where  individual  house  lots 
are  arranged  closely  together,  leaving  larger  spaces  open  for  use  as  common  areas.  This 
strategy,  often  implemented  in  today's  development  plans,  helps  to  preserve  the  natural 
qualities  of  a  site.  Lots  can  be  more  sympathetically  situated  according  to  topography, 
woods,  and  other  physical  characteristics.  As  Arden  demonstrated,  this  clustered 
planning  approach  allowed  for  sizeable  tracts  of  land  to  be  preserved  in  their  natural  state, 
uninterrupted  by  the  construction  of  houses  or  other  buildings.  Of  the  total  163  acres 

^^orris,  News  From  Nowhere,  30. 

^'^Sinclair,  Autobiography,  Kemp,  Tramping  On  Life:  An  Autobiographical  Narrative. 


comprising  Arden,  roughly  83  acres  contained  homesites  and  the  remaining  80  acres  - 
nearly  50%  of  the  total  area  -  were  devoted  to  public  use. 

Between  the  Arden  Woods  and  the  Sherwood  Forest,  Price  clustered  roughly  130  lots, 
ranging  in  size  from  7,000  to  54,000  square  feet,  with  an  average  of  26,000  square  feet.^i 
The  annual  land  rents  assessed  on  Arden's  lots  in  1909  ranged  from  $0,225  to  $0.35  and 
in  1912  ranged  from  $0.39  to  $0.77  per  1000  square  feet.^^    Land  rents  would  differ 
somewhat  according  to  the  lot's  location;  premiums  were  assigned  for  frontage  on  the 
forest,  on  Naaman's  Creek,  or  on  comer  lots. 

For  the  first  eight  years  of  Arden's  existence,  residential  activity  was  focused  around  the 
Village  Green  on  the  Woodlands  side  of  Arden.  It  was  in  1909,  when  Joseph  Fels  paid 
off  the  outstanding  mortgage,  that  development  became  possible  on  the  Sherwood  side  of 
Arden.63  j^  order  to  stimulate  development  on  to  the  west  of  Grubb's  Road,  lower  rental 
rates  were  offered.  The  "Assessment  of  Arden  Land  Rentals"  from  1912  indicated  that 
the  rental  rate  was  considerably  lower  on  the  Sherwood  side  than  on  the  Woodlands  side 
(see  Appendix  G).  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  lack  of  water  on  the  Sherwood  side  at  this 
time  would  also  have  been  a  factor  in  these  lower  rental  rates.  According  to  a  letter  dated 
January  10,  1912,  the  Sherwood  side  of  Arden  was  still  without  a  water  supply:  "Today, 
the  only  available  fresh  water  must  come  from  either  Grubb's  comer  or  from  the  two 

^l"Assessment  of  Arden  Land  Rentals  for  Year  Beginning  March  25,  1912."  This  document  shows  a  total 
of  127  leaseholds  in  Arden;  80  are  on  the  Woodlands  side  and  the  remaining  47  are  on  the  Sherwood  side. 
^2" Assessment  of  Arden  Land  Rentals  for  Year  Beginning  March  25, 1909"  and  "Assessment  of  Arden 
Land  Rentals  for  Year  Beginning  March  25,  1912." 
^^Arden  Club  Talk,  February  1909. 


pumps  located  across  Grubb's  Road  [on  the  Woodlands  Side],  entailing  a  long  and 
toilsome  carriage  by  buckets."^ 

Amongst  the  homesites  were  two  principle  open  spaces  --  the  Sherwood  Green  located  on 
the  western  side  of  Grubb's  Road  (Harvey  Road)  and  the  Village  Green  on  the  eastern 
side.  Each  of  these  greens  served  as  a  focal  point,  around  which  the  houses  were 
clustered.  Most  importantly,  these  open  spaces  had  an  extremely  important  social  role, 
providing  ample  recreation  grounds  within  easy  access  of  everyone  in  Arden.  The 
abundance  of  land  devoted  to  public  space  fostered  Arden' s  community  spirit, 
encouraging  residents  to  interact  by  sharing  those  spaces  intended  for  common  use. 
Edward  T.  Hall,  author  oi  Hidden  Dimension  (1966),  refers  to  spaces  such  as  these  as 
"sociopetal"  --  places  that  bring  people  together.  ^^  j^  the  way  that  these  greens  were 
centrally  located  within  the  town,  they  helped  to  bolster  community  vitality  in  Arden, 
inviting  community  participation  by  being  used  for  pageants,  concerts  and  other 
festivities  (Plates  19-21). 

These  common  spaces  also  provided  a  safe,  enclosed  place  for  children's  recreation.  As 
William  Morris  explained  in  News  From  Nowhere,  a  healthy  environment  is  one  in  which 
children  are  encouraged  to  experience  the  outdoors  and  to  live  in  the  woods  where  they 
would  learn  to  do  things  for  themselves.^^  Those  who  grew  up  in  Arden  recall  the 
freedom  that  they  had  as  children,  in  the  company  of  their  friends  and  neighbors  and 
away  from  the  watchful  eye  of  their  parents.  The  insular  plan  provided  a  safe 

^Letter  from  HM.  Ware  and  W.  Hambly  (representing  the  Sherwood  side  residents)  to  Don  Stephens, 

president  of  the  Arden  Club,  dated  January  10, 1912. 

^^Edward  T.  Hall,  Hidden  Dimension  (Garden  City,  ISfY:  Doubleday  &  Co.,  1966),  101. 

^^Morris,  News  From  Nowhere,  31. 


environment,  free  from  dangerous  traffic  or  crime.    For  the  most  part  this  still  holds  true, 
with  the  exception  of  Grubb's  Road  which  has  become  a  high-speed  corridor  taking  cars 
west  from  1-95. 

Frederick  Law  Ohnsted  had  helped  to  revitalize  the  notion  of  a  village  green  in  town 
plarming.  During  the  last  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century,  in  discussions  of  his  plans  for 
college  campuses,  Olmsted  advocated  that  buildings  be  placed  around  an  open  space  -  an 
arrangement  that  encouraged  social  connectedness.    In  all  of  his  designs,  whether  a 
campus,  park  or  suburb,  Olmsted  strove  to  achieve  this  desired  social  interaction.^"^ 
Price,  in  his  plan  for  Arden,  took  a  similar  approach,  devising  a  plan  that  incorporated 
these  types  of  social  spaces  to  achieve  cooperation,  intimacy  and  interdependence  among 

The  village  green  concept  adopted  at  Arden  also  resembled  the  popular  arrangement  for 
Camp  Meetings,  a  form  of  religious  conmiunity  popularized  in  America  during  the  mid- 
nineteenth  century,  where  people  of  a  religious  sect  would  temporarily  assemble  for 
worship.  Camp  meetings,  common  among  Presbyterians,  Baptists  and  Methodists,  were 
set  up  with  tents  arranged  around  the  perimeter  of  an  open  area,  the  open  space  being  the 
center  of  all  activity.  In  the  case  of  a  camp  meeting,  the  open  space  was  the  designated 
worship  area  (Plate  22).^^ 

Not  only  did  these  central  greens  provide  a  focal  point  for  activities,  but  they  also 
provided  a  focus  for  Arden' s  dwellings.  The  pattern  of  dwellings  along  the  Village 

^^Bender,  Toward  an  Urban  Vision.  176. 

^^John  Stilgoe,  Common  Landscape  of  America,  1580  to  1845  (New  Haven,  CT:  Yale  University  Press, 



Green,  where  Arden's  earliest  building  activity  occurred,  suggests  that  prospect  was  of 
foremost  consideration  in  building  placement.  Every  house  was  therefore  carefully 
situated  facing  the  green,  although  not  always  placed  squarely  on  the  green,  so  as  to  take 
advantage  of  the  view.  The  Homestead,  the  first  building  constructed  at  Arden,  was 
ideally  situated  so  it  not  only  gained  an  advantageous  prospect  of  the  Village  Green  but 
due  to  its  southern  orientation  it  also  received  the  desired  southern  exposure. 

The  allocation  of  land  in  Arden  was  also  carefully  determined,  keeping  lots  relatively 
small  so  that  one's  financial  status  could  not  be  reflected  in  one's  home  site.  Price  and 
Stephens  were  very  interested  in  taking  the  emphasis  away  from  the  house.  During  the 
late  nineteenth  century  --  a  period  which  corned  the  term  "conspicuous  consumption"  -- 
one's  house  had  developed  into  an  important  indicator  of  wealth.  By  restricting  lot  size. 
Price  and  Stephens  made  certain  that  this  was  not  going  to  be  a  phenomenon  at  Arden. 
Instead,  the  small  lot  sizes  allowed  for  dwellings  of  only  modest  size,  making  certain  that 
homes  would  not  be  a  badge  of  one's  social  or  economic  status.  It  was  hoped  at  Arden, 
just  as  at  Rose  Valley,  that  there  would  be  no  economic  segregation,  that  people  of 
different  economic  classes  would  be  integrated  throughout  the  community.  As  Will  Price 
wrote  in  The  Artsman,  "Here  the  tiniest  cottages  may  be  built  side  by  side  with  a  more 
spacious  neighbor.  And  why  not?  Certainly  our  fitness  to  associate  together  upon  human 
conditions  should  not  be  guaged  by  our  incomes."  ^^ 

The  strategy  of  small  houses  on  small  lots  also  encouraged  residents  to  utilize  the 
common  areas  rather  than  isolating  themselves  on  their  own  plot  of  land,  ensuring  that 
everyone  be  part  of  the  community.    In  contrast  to  other  turn  of  the  century  suburban 

^^Uliam  Price,  "Is  Rose  Valley  WorthwhUe?"  The  Artsman,  1,  1  (October  1903),  10-11. 


developments  where  houses  were  being  built  on  large  individual  lots,  the  homesites  of 
Arden  were  not  large  enough  to  provide  for  recreational  area  as  well  as  a  dwelling,  so 
people  were  forced  to  spill  out  onto  the  Village  Green  and  into  the  woods  to  seek 
adventure  and  sport.  In  effect,  the  lot  size  further  stimulated  sociability. 

Another  important  element  of  Arden' s  plan  was  the  network  of  roads  and  paths.  Just  as 
Frederick  Law  Olmsted  had  instituted  in  his  urban  parks,  Price  designed  Arden  so  that  all 
of  the  vehicular  and  pedestrian  traffic  was  separated,  the  width  of  the  roads  designating 
intended  use.  Wider  roads  for  vehicular  traffic  were  supplemented  by  narrow  walking 
paths  that  meandered  through  the  community  and  into  the  woods.  Not  only  was  this  an 
appealing  and  healthy  alternative  to  conventional  road  planning,  it  encouraged,  and  still 
does  encourage,  social  interaction  by  inviting  people  to  walk,  to  visit  their  neighbors,  and 
to  enjoy  their  surroundings.  Cul-de-sacs  were  also  incorporated  into  the  plan;  they  were 
considered  the  most  appropriate  type  of  road  for  reaching  the  homes  that  were  tucked  into 
the  edge  of  the  woods  and  along  the  Naaman's  Creek  along  the  eastern  edge  of  Arden. 

The  arbitrary  placement  of  the  roads  was  also  intentional,  again  contrasting  with  the 
gridiron  plan  of  the  typical  American  city.    As  Olmsted  had  believed,  the  urban  gridplan 
had  been  developed  for  economic  reasons,  physically  dividing  the  city  into  uniform 
blocks  -  convenient  packages  for  development  and  speculation.'^^  Because  straight- 
sided,  right  angled  houses  to  fit  these  lots  were  the  most  cost-effective  to  build,  the 
physical  form  of  the  city  reflected  the  city  as  real  estate  rather  than  as  social  space.    That 
is,  the  grid  in  nineteenth  century  American  cities  was  essentially  suited  to  urban 
industrialization,  and  therefore  an  inappropriate  form  for  a  rural  town  or  suburb  that 

^•^ender.  Toward  an  Urban  Vision. 


sought  to  provide  relief  from  the  ills  of  the  city.  Thus,  in  contrast  to  the  regularity  of  the 
streets  in  cities  like  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  or  even  the  grid  of  Price's  Wayne  and 
Overbrook  developments,  Arden  was  planned  to  have  roads  which  were  neitiier  formal 
nor  well-ordered  but  more  random,  better  suited  to  the  rhythms  of  nature.  As  any  first- 
time  visitor  to  Arden  will  confirm,  one  can  easily  find  themselves  disoriented  as  they  try 
to  make  their  way  by  foot  or  by  car  through  the  community. 

The  arbitrary  roads  were  also  effective  in  shaping  social  behavior,  encouraging  travel  by 
foot  rather  than  by  vehicle,  because  the  walking  paths  through  the  woods  were  often  more 
direct  and  more  convenient  than  the  circuitous  roads  laid  out  for  vehicular  traffic. 
Importantly,  pedestrian  traffic  further  encouraged  social  interaction  among  residents. 

Small,  hand  carved  wooden  signs  marked  every  path  and  roadway  through  Arden.  The 

most  notable  of  these  carved  wooden  signs  was  the  stile  marking  the  entrance  to  Arden, 

still  in  place  on  the  east  side  of  Grubb's  Road  road  at  the  comer  of  the  Stile  Path  (Plate 

23).  In  graceful  medieval  lettering,  Arden' s  motto  "You  are  welcome  hither,"  borrowed 

from  Shakespeare's  King  Lear,  spans  the  stile,  offering  a  friendly  greeting  to  visitors  to 

the  community.  This  welcome  effectively  defined  the  spirit  Arden  evoked.  Unlike  so 

many  of  the  exclusive,  gated  suburban  communities  developed  during  the  second  half  of 

the  nineteenth  century,  Arden  was  open  to  all.  The  Arden  Leaves  recounts  a  story  told  of 

how  this  stile,  which  has  now  become  somewhat  of  an  icon  of  the  community,  first  came 

into  existence: 

When  Arden  was  not  a  day  old,  the  two  founders,  filled  with 
enthusiasm  for  the  project  and  overflowing  with  sympathy  and 
good-will  for  the  lonely  and  unfortunate  of  the  earth,  had  each 
resolved,  unknown  to  the  other,  to  put  up  some  sign  that  would 
attract  the  wayfarer  to  this  new  City  of  Refuge.  Number  One 
[Price],  who  was  an  artist,  said  to  himself,  "When  I  go  to  town  I 


will  have  a  sign  painted  'Trespassing  Requested,'  and  I  will  bring 
it  back  with  me  and  hang  it  on  the  gate."  But  Number  Two 
[Stephens],  who  was  a  Poet,  immediately  got  him  an  oak  plank  and 
he  sat  up  all  night  and  carved  on  it  in  quaint  letters, 'You  are 
welcome  hither' ''i 

As  this  entrance  suggests.  Price  and  Stephens  from  the  start  established  a  sense  of 

opermess  and  individual  freedom  that  still  lives  on  in  Arden  today. 

The  theater,  established  on  the  edge  of  the  Village  Green,  was  another  symbolically  and 
functionally  important  component  of  Arden 's  plan  (Plate  24).  Known  as  the  Field 
Theater,  this  performance  space  was  the  site  of  plays,  musical  productions  and  other 
festivities.  Resembling  an  early  Shakespearean  performance  space,  the  Field  Theater  was 
built  in  a  semi-circular  arrangement  with  wooden  benches  embracing  the  stage.  The 
benches,  built  in  a  rustic  manner  in  character  with  Arden 's  early  dwellings,  were 
supported  by  large  tree  trunks.  The  stage,  defined  by  a  low  stone  wall  wrapping  around 
the  performance  space,  was  raised  only  slightly  off  the  ground  and  had  a  grass  floor.  The 
natural  surroundings  of  the  Arden  Woods  served  not  only  as  a  picturesque  setting  for  the 
theater  but  provided  the  limited  stage  props,  such  as  the  large  boulder  found  in  the  middle 
of  the  stage.    Appropriate  for  Shakespearean  performances,  Arden' s  theater  provided  a 
versatile  stage;  the  lack  of  scenery  was  to  be  made  up  for  by  the  talent  of  the  actors  and 
the  imagination  of  the  audience.  The  entrance  to  the  Field  Theater  was  marked  by  two 
busts  of  Shakespearean  figures  mounted  on  tree  trunk  posts.    Shakespearean  plays  were 
performed  at  the  Field  Theater  every  Saturday  throughout  the  summer. 

The  theater's  location  alone  signified  the  importance  of  drama  to  the  community  (see 
Appendix  E).  With  the  theater  situated  on  the  edge  of  the  Village  Green  adjacent  to  the 

"^^Arden  Leaves,  December  1910, 4. 


Frank  Stephens  Homestead,  it  was  ensured  that  drama  would  play  a  central  role  in 
community  life  (Plate  40).  Whether  part  of  the  cast  or  the  audience,  nearly  every  Arden 
resident  played  a  role  in  the  drama  at  Arden.  The  theater,  therefore,  was  an  important 
means  of  social  interaction  as  well  as  a  way  of  inspiring  creativity  and  artistic  spirit 
within  the  community. 

In  terms  of  landscaping,  residents  of  Arden  were  vigorously  urged  to  decorate  their 
homes  and  lots  with  flowers  and  trees.  As  William  Morris  recommended  in  News  From 
Nowhere,  every  house  was  to  be  "surrounded  by  a  teeming  garden."''^  William  Price, 
another  avid  fan  of  gardens,  happily  exclaimed  in  a  1907  essay,  "There  is  a  better  day 
dawning.  We  are  going  back  to  gardening,  which  goes  to  show  that  Nature  is  being 
considered  in  its  relation  to  architecture,  and  while  our  effort  at  present  seems  mainly  to 
lie  in  the  direction  of  torturing  Nature  into  a  shape  to  match  our  houses,  still  we  grow, 
and  eventually  architecture  will  be  tamed  to  meet  Nature  at  least  half  way."  Showing  his 
taste  for  gardens.  Price  went  on  in  this  essay  to  declare  that  "your  house  is  not  a  home 
without  a  garden,  or  your  garden  a  garden  without  a  house."^^  At  Arden,  in  addition  to 
gardens,  there  were  fences,  trellises  and  pergolas  with  vines  trained  to  grow  along  these 
structures  (Plate  35).  These  garden  embellishments  were  another  means  of  encouraging 
nature's  integral  role  in  the  community.  Gardens,  fences  and  trellises  not  only  enlivened 
the  community  as  a  whole,  but  they  provided  an  economical  and  effective  way  for 
residents  to  personalize  their  lots  and  express  their  individuality. 

^^Morris,  News  From  Nowhere,  25. 

^^Price,  "Choosing  Simple  Materials  for  the  Home,"  37. 


It  seems  that  certain  planning  ground  rules  made  by  Ebenezer  Howard  in  Garden  Cities 
of  Tomorrow,  may  have  been  considered  by  Price  and  Stephens  at  Arden.  First,  Howard 
advised  that  communities  should  not  over  emphasize  cooperative  living  and  fail  to 
acknowledge  or  encourage  individualism  within  the  community:  "society  will  prove  the 
most  healthy  and  vigorous  where  the  freest  and  fullest  opportunities  are  afforded  alike  for 
individual  and  for  combined  effort.""^^  While  cooperation  was  indeed  a  goal  at  Arden,  so 
too  was  individuaUsm,  most  evident  in  Arden' s  diverse  architecture. 

Another  of  Howard's  rules  for  community  development  that  seems  to  have  been 
^  followed  at  Arden  was  to  make  certain  that  a  proper  location  be  selected,  a  very  important 

factor  in  the  success  or  failure  of  a  new  community  J^  Howard  insisted  that  in  order  to 
successfully  draw  people  from  their  current  homes  to  a  new  location,  the  new  community 
could  not  be  located  at  an  extreme  distance  because  it  was  too  costly  and,  therefore, 
unlikely  that  people  would  simply  pick  up  and  move  to  a  new  area,  especially  when  there 
was  not  adequate  information  yet  available  on  what  they  would  expect  to  find  there. 
Thus,  people  had  to  feel  that  they  were  not  too  far  away  from  their  familiar  surroundings. 
Following  Howard's  advice.  Price  and  Stephens  chose  a  site  for  Arden  along  the 
established  Baltimore  and  Ohio  rail  line  within  a  half-hour's  ride  from  the  two 
metropolitan  centers  of  Philadelphia  and  Wihnington. 

Howard's  book  also  proposed  a  strategy  for  town  expansion  which  Arden  later 
implemented.  It  was  suggested  by  Howard  that  when  a  new  community  grew  to  the 
extent  that  it  had  to  expand,  it  was  essential  that  development  not  spread  into  the  deeded 

^"^Howard,  Garden  Cities,  1 14. 


common  spaces  but  that  adjacent  lands  be  acquired. '^^  In  this  manner,  the  original  open 
spaces  of  the  community  were  retained  for  the  continued  use  of  the  residents,  ensuring 
that  the  integrity  of  the  community  was  not  compromised.  Adhering  to  Howard's 
strategy  for  growth  in  a  garden  city,  Arden  expanded  in  1922,  not  by  developing  its 
designated  woodland  areas  or  village  greens,  but  by  acquiring  an  adjacent  109  acres  for 
Ardentown.  The  establishment  of  Ardencroft  in  1950  on  another  contiguous  63  acres 
followed  a  similar  strategy. 

Interestingly,  Price's  plan  for  Arden  countered  the  formalized  planning  trends  set  into 
motion  by  Chicago's  Columbian  Exposition  in  1893.  By  1900,  when  much  of  the  nation 
was  adopting  the  type  of  grand  and  theatrical  landscape  presented  in  Chicago,  Price 
appeared  to  be  perpemating  the  notion  of  a  namral  landscape  that  had  been  advocated  by 
Olmsted  in  his  urban  park  and  suburb  planning  during  the  mid-nineteenth  century.  Price 
had  no  desire  to  develop  a  contrived,  formal  or  symmetrical  plan  for  Arden,  for  these 
monumental  plans  celebrated  the  great  wealth  of  the  nation,  displaying  it  in  a  pretentious 
fashion.  Price'saims  were  more  subdued  and  modest.  At  Arden,  he  wanted  to  create  a 
community  that  served  his  idealistic  views  of  the  way  people  should  interact,  and  how 
they  should  live  in  harmony  within  a  democratic  setting. 

Over  the  past  eighty  years  Arden's  plan  has  remained  intact  but  not  static.  As  social 
goals  changed  or  new  needs  arose,  certain  adaptations  or  additions  have  been  made,  the 
most  apparent  examples  being  the  construction  of  a  number  of  common  facilities  such  as 
the  Gild  Hall,  the  craft  shop,  the  weaving  shop  ~  all  designed  to  enhance  Arden's  appeal 



to  artists.  This  provision  of  studio  space  demonstrated  the  community's  commitment  to 
the  arts. 

All  of  the  elements  of  Arden's  plan  helped  to  establish  Arden's  reputation  as  a 
progressive  community,  one  with  a  high  level  of  public  spirit  and  artistic  enterprise. 
Today  nothing  speaks  of  the  community's  success  more  than  the  plan  itself.  To  walk 
through  Arden  along  its  roads  and  paths  one  captures  the  essence  of  Arden.  This  cannot 
be  achieved  by  driving  through  hastily.  To  fully  view  Arden  one  must  take  the  time  to 
walk,  to  stop  and  talk  to  the  residents,  to  witness  the  interaction  among  residents,  to 
experience  the  community  activities,  for  it  is  these  activities  that  make  Arden's  plan  a 
successful  effort  at  an  interactive  and  cooperative  planned  development. 



Like  the  plan,  the  architecture  of  Arden,  was  an  essential  tool  in  the  social  engineering  of 
the  community,  aiding  Price  and  Stephens  in  their  efforts  to  achieve  an  interactive, 
democratic  model  community.     The  residential  architecture  was,  and  in  large  part  still  is, 
one  of  the  most  important  factors  in  determining  Arden 's  population.  At  first,  the  appeal 
for  the  diminutive  scale  and  simple  construction  of  Arden's  early  houses  was  fairly 
limited.  Founded  at  a  time  when  it  was  common  for  people  to  display  their  wealth  with 
extravagant,  showy  residences,  Arden  appealed  only  to  those  who  were  interested  in  more 
rustic  accomodations,  those  willing  to  sacrifice  urban  technological  advances  and 
architectural  pretensions  in  favor  of  a  more  simplistic,  "back-to-nature"  living  situation. 
Today,  the  same  holds  true.  Although  the  homes  of  Arden  have  since  been  adopted  to 
incorporate  nearly  every  technological  advance  (running  water,  heating,  bathrooms, 
kitchens,  etc.),  the  scale  of  the  architecture  has  remained  minute,  thereby  continuing  to 
attract  those  interested  in  living  in  a  small  house  and  being  part  of  a  tight-knit,  interactive 
conmiunity.  Due  to  their  small  size,  the  dwellings  in  Arden  tend  to  be  supplements  to 
Arden's  larger,  shared  spaces;  that  is,  the  houses  are  fragments  of  a  much  larger,  more 
complex  social  unit. 

Gustav  Stickley  (1858-1942),  who  was  in  large  part  responsible  for  conveying  to 
American  audiences  the  arts  and  crafts  ideas  of  Englishman  William  Morris,  played  an 
influential  role  in  shaping  Arden's  architecture.  A  contemporary  of  Stephens  and  Price, 
Stickley  spent  a  lifetime  promoting  his  so-called  Craftsman  Movement  which  empasized 
using  architecture  as  a  means  of  improving  health  and  morals.  He  advocated  a 
simplification  of  building  design,  honesty  of  materials,  and  a  rejection  of  the  excesses 


associated  with  the  industrial  age  ~  ideas  which  in  theory  closely  resembled  those  of 
Price  and  Stephens  and  their  aspirations  for  Arden. 

The  Craftsman,  a  magazine  published  from  1901  to  1916,  was  Stickley's  tool  for 
communicating  his  ideologies.  Beginning  as  a  compilation  of  essays  promulgating 
Morris'  arts  and  crafts  values,  the  magazine  began  in  1904  to  offer  designs  for  "craftsman 
homes,"  the  architecmral  manifestation  of  these  arts  and  crafts  principles. ''"'  Interestingly, 
William  Price  was  among  die  many  artists  and  architects  who  contributed  to  this 
magazine.  In  1911,  The  Craftsman  published  Price's  essay  "The  House  of  the 
Democrat,"  his  plea  for  a  simpler,  more  personal,  and  more  artistic  architecture."^^  Price's 
contributions  to  The  Craftsman  help  to  explain  the  parallels  between  designs  at  Arden 
and  those  presented  in  Stickley's  magazine.    Price  and  Stickley  were  among  a  throng  of 
William  Morris  enthusiasts  in  America,  dubbed  by  Stickley  as  "craftsmen,"  who  were 
striving  to  design  buildings  more  appropriate  to  twentieth  century  conditions  --  buildings 
that  would  help  to  reshape  social  behavior  and  thereby  resolve  some  of  the  social, 
political  and  economic  turmoil  within  American  society. 

As  Gustav  Stickley  expressed  in  his  book  Craftsman  Homes  (1909):  "the  root  of  all 
reform  lies  in  the  individual  and  that  the  life  of  the  individual  is  shaped  mainly  by  home 
surroundings..."    Stickley  went  on  to  suggest  that  "the  ordering  of  our  lives  along  more 
simple  and  reasonable  lines  would  not  only  assure  greater  comfort,  and  therefore  greater 
efficiency,  to  the  workers  of  the  nation,  but  would  give  the  children  a  chance  to  grow  up 
under  conditions  which  would  be  conducive  to  a  higher  degree  of  mental,  moral  and 

^^Gustav  Stickley,  Craftsman  Homes  (NY:  Dover  Pubbcations,  Inc.,  1982),  9.  Reprint,  originally 

published  by  Craftsman  Publishing  in  1909. 

"^^Price,  'The  House  of  the  Democrat,"  The  Craftsman,  Vol.  21,  No.2,  1911. 


physical  efficiency."'''^  He  explained  that  simplicity  tended  to  ground  children's 
expectations  for  the  future,  not  filling  them  with  ideas  that  they  have  to  strive  to  meet  the 
certain  expected  level  of  wealth  represented  in  the  more  elaborate,  conspicuous  Victorian 
home  typical  of  the  late  nineteenth  century.  Price  and  Stephens  shared  Stickley's  belief 
that  architecture  could  be  used  as  a  means  of  social  reform,  ensuring  that  through 
architecture  humanistic  qualities  could  be  preserved  and  not  entirely  lost  to  industrialism. 
From  the  start,  the  design  of  Arden's  architecture  helped  to  enforce  the  social  objectives 
of  Stephens  and  Price,  decreasing  the  emphasis  on  the  house  as  a  symbol  of  wealth, 
paring  it  dovm  to  only  its  essential  elements. 

As  Stickley  explained,  craftsman  homes  presented  in  The  Craftsman  were  designed  for 

the  country  and  intended  to  be  as  simplistic  as  possible: 

The  Craftsman  type  of  building  is  largely  the  result  not  of  elaboration,  but 
of  elimination.  The  more  I  design,  the  more  sure  I  am  that  elimination  is 
the  secret  of  beauty  in  architecture.  By  this  I  do  not  mean  that  I  want  to 
think  scantily  and  work  meagerly.  Rather,  I  feel  that  one  should  plan 
richly  and  fully,  and  then  begin  to  prune,  to  weed,  to  shear  away 
everything  that  seems  superfluous  and  superficial.  Practically  every  house 
I  build  I  find,  both  in  structural  outline  and  in  the  planning  and  the 
adjustment  of  the  interior  space,  that  I  am  simplifying,  that  I  am  doing 
away  with  something  that  was  not  needed;  that  I  am  using  my  spaces  to 
better  advantage.  All  of  this  means  the  expenditure  of  less  money  and  the 
gain  of  more  comfort  and  beauty.^^ 

This  propensity  for  simplicity  and  economy  that  is  readily  apparent  at  Arden  was  initially 
spurred  on  by  William  Morris  who  urged  people  to  "possess  nothing  that  you  do  not 
know  to  be  useful  or  believe  to  be  beautiful."^!    Tied  into  this  beauty  and  simplicity  was 
the  craftsman  belief  that  a  building  must  be  in  harmony  with  its  surroundings.  In  order  to 

^^Stickley,  "Simplicity  and  Domestic  Life,"  in  Roots  of  Contemporary  Architecture,  299-301. 
^^Gustav  Stickley,  More  Craftsman  Homes  (NY:  Dover  Publications,  Inc,  1988),  1.  Reprint,  originally 
published  by  Craftsman  Publishing  in  1912. 
^^Lewis  Mumford,  "A  Backward  Glance,"  in  Roots  of  Contemporary  Architecture,  28. 


best  achieve  this  harmony  it  was  advocated  that  local  materials  be  used  in  the 
construction  of  buildings.  Price,  in  his  essay  "Choosing  Simple  Materials  for  the  House" 
published  in  1907  in  Country  Homes  and  Gardens  of  Moderate  Cost,  explained  that  the 
reason  for  choosing  local  materials  was  threefold:  "  First,  they  are  cheap;  second,  they  are 
easily  obtainable;  and  third,  they  are  beautiful."^^ 

Among  the  many  other  elements  thought  to  be  of  utmost  importance  to  craftsman  homes 

were  fu-eplaces,  fireside  nooks,  exposed  timber  beams,  high  wainscoting,  and  use  of 

rough  stone  details.  The  liberal  use  of  natural  woodwork  was  anodier  distinctive 

characteristic  of  craftsman  homes.  Stickley  believed  that  "no  other  treatment  of  the  walls 

gives  such  a  sense  of  friendliness,  mellowness  and  permanence  as  does  a  generous 

quanitity  of  woodwork."^^  wm  price  shared  Stickley' s  passion  for  woodwork  (Plate  59). 

In  his  book  Model  Houses  for  Little  Money,  Price  stated  that  woodwork  should  be: 

...  simple  in  the  extreme,  ~  usually  mere  flat,  thin  bands,  designed  to  show 
the  grain...  and  never  cover  with  coat  after  coat  of  varnish  or  paint  to  hide 
its  beauty...  There  is  nothing  more  beautiful  than  an  open-grained  or  large- 
figured  wood,  like  chestnut,  cypress,  or  even  hemlock,  without  filler  or 
paint,  merely  sandpapered  to  a  smooth  surface  and  waxed  to  bring  out  the 

Stickley  recommended  that  homes  could  achieve  maximum  efficiency  of  space  by 
keeping  interiors  open,  using  as  few  partitions  as  possible.  To  achieve  maximum 
efficiency  in  the  utilization  of  space,  he  believed,  like  William  Morris,  that  craftsman 
homes  should  have  minimal  furniture.    Stickley  suggested  that  built-in  furnishings  be 

^2price,  "Choosing  Simple  Materials  for  the  House"  in  Country  Homes  and  Gardens  of  Moderate  Cost,  ed. 

by  Charles  F.  Osborne  (Philadelphia:  John  C.  Winston  Co.,  1907). 

^^Stickley,  Craftsman  Homes,  146. 

^William  L.  Price,  Model  Houses  for  Little  Money  (PhUadelphia:  Curtis  Publishing  Co.,  Inc.,  1895),  90- 



incoqjorated  into  the  interiors,  lining  the  walls  with  book  shelves,  cupboards,  built-in 
benches  and  window  seats.  Many  of  these  architectural  elements  and  details  were  also 
carefully  incorporated  into  the  homes  in  Arden  (Plate  25). 

At  Arden,  the  architecture  and  plan  depict  the  community's  history.  The  architecture 
mirrors  Arden 's  humble  beginnings,  its  perpetual  struggles  to  remain  within  its  financial 
parameters,  and  its  efforts  to  transform  itself  from  a  summer  village  to  a  viable  year- 
round  community.  The  best  way  to  examine  Arden's  architecture  is  by  looking  at  the 
manner  in  which  the  architectural  elements  of  the  community  evolved.    The  architectural 
development  of  Arden  can  be  easily  divided  into  two  phases:  the  first  phase  lasting  from 
the  community's  founding  in  1900  until  1908,  and  the  second  phase  continuing  from 
early  1909  (when  Arden  received  funding  intended  to  aid  in  the  community's  building 
efforts)  until  1916,  the  year  of  William  Price's  death. 

Arden:  1900  - 1908 

Documentation  suggests  that  during  the  first  phase  of  Arden's  development,  Frank 
Stephens  was  the  principal  house  designer  and  that  William  Price  did  not  play  a  very 
active  role.^^  Price  was  otherwise  occupied  during  this  period,  in  the  design  and 
execution  of  his  Utopian  village  Rose  Valley.  The  fact  that  Frank  Stephens  was  trained  as 
a  sculptor  and  not  an  as  an  architect  helps  to  explain  the  rather  amateur  quality  of  Arden's 
earliest  structures.  William  Price's  architectural  contributions  to  Arden's  building  stock, 
and  the  resulting  improvement  in  building  quality,  did  not  come  until  1909,  during  the 
second  phase  of  Arden's  development. 

^^Arden  Leaves.  The  Arden  Leaves  advertises  in  its  "Arden  Industries"  that  Frank  Stephens  was  to  be 
called  on  for  house  designing:  "Frank  Stephens  designs  and  builds  houses  for  homes,  builds  them  by  days 
work,  with  men  who  take  pleasure  and  pride  in  the  work.  No  contract  work,  thank  you,  just  actual  cost  of 
honest  work  plus  a  reasonable  charge  for  careful  supervision." 


During  Arden's  first  eight  years,  the  community  remained  small  --  essentially  a  camp 

where  visitors  would  come  only  for  the  summer  and  stay  in  very  rustic  bungalows  or 

simple  tents  (Plate  26).  An  article  published  in  American  Homes  and  Gardens  in  1908 

actually  described  Arden  as  a  camp  for  boys  between  the  ages  of  eight  and  fifteen.  This 

article  also  mentions,  however,  that  families  would  also  visit  Arden.^^  In  general, 

lifestyle  in  Arden  was  informal.  Recreation  was  the  favorite  pastime  and  people  spent 

most  of  their  time  outdoors.  This  being  the  case,  homes  were  of  secondary  importance. 

Dwellings  were  more  of  a  formality  than  a  necessity.    In  fact,  tent  camping  was  a 

common  phenomenon  at  Arden  and  a  tradition  that  endured  for  many  years.  William 

Price's  book  Model  Houses  for  Little  Money,  published  in  1895,  included  an  essay  that 

advocated  tent  camping  as  a  practical  and  desirable  way  of  escaping  the  city. 

For  those  who  live  in  cities  and  towns,  and  are  fond  of  Nature  in  her 
brightest  aspect,  there  is  no  more  enjoyable  and  inexpensive  way  of 
passing  a  summer  holiday  than  in  a  cabin  or  a  tent  under  the  shade  of 
forest  trees.  Here  are  to  be  found  complete  change  of  environment  and  of 
living,  perfect  tranquility,  absolute  rest  and  health,  and  immunity  from 
business  cares  and  social  duties;  here,  also,  one  may  follow  the  bent  of  his 
inclinations  without  hindrance.^'^ 

As  this  essay  suggests,  the  natural  environment  of  Arden  was  well-suited  for  tents  and  as 

late  as  1910  people  were  still  spending  summers  there  in  tents.  However,  despite  this 

affinity  for  tent  camping,  some  Ardenites  opted  for  somewhat  more  permanent  structures. 

Consequently,  a  number  of  more  permanent,  or  at  least  semi-permanent,  structures  were 

erected  during  Arden's  first  several  years.  This  earliest  building  activity  was 

concentrated  on  the  perimeter  of  the  Village  Green,  and  consisted  mainly  of  small,  rather 

^^Mabel  T.  Priestman,  "A  Summer  Camp  at  Arden..."  American  Homes  and  Gardens,  V,  May  1908,  180. 
^'^Price,  Model  Houses  for  Link  Money  (PhOadelphia:  Curtis  Publishing  Co.,  Inc.,  1895),  181. 


crudely  constructed  dwellings.  Included  among  these  earliest  (pre- 1903)  buildings 


The  Homestead 


The  Arden  Inn 


The  Little  Red  House 


The  Brambles 


Owl's  Nest 


Saint's  Rest 


Admiral  BenBow 


Please  refer  to  Appendix  Ffor  a  map  of  Arden 's  buildings. 

The  Homestead,  Arden' s  first  structure,  is  representative  of  the  earliest  homes  of  Arden 
(Plates  27, 28).    Frank  Stephens  built  this  small  bungalow  for  himself  and  his  wife 
Eleanor  in  1900  shortly  after  the  purchase  of  the  Derrickson  Farm.    Although  it  has  since 
undergone  changes,  the  Homestead  began  as  a  one-story,  single  room  house  with  low 
walls  and  roof.  The  structure,  with  its  simple  form  and  economical  consruction,  was  very 
basic,  providing  only  shghtly  better  living  conditions  than  a  canvas  tent.  The  requisite 
casement  windows  advocated  by  both  William  Morris  and  Gustav  Stickley  were  also 
found  at  The  Homestead.  These  windows  were  chosen  because  they  were  thought  to  be 
the  most  effective  in  allowing  the  maximum  amount  of  air  and  light  to  enter  into  a 
dwelling.  The  small  porch  off  the  front  of  the  bungalow,  a  characteristic  of  most  early 
Arden  structures,  was  effective  in  achieving  a  link  between  the  indoors  and  outdoors,  in 
accord  with  the  craftsman  home  quality  of  being  in  harmony  with  nature. 

Unlike  typical  suburban  development  of  the  period,  where  the  average  home  was  growing 
increasingly  larger  due  to  the  perceived  need  to  have  a  different  room  for  every 
household  function,  Ardenites  were  scaling  down,  reducing  the  home  to  die  bare 

^^Arden  Advocate,  July  25,  1902.   The  paper  reported  that  aU  of  these  houses  were  being  lived  in  by  July 
1902.    All  of  these  structures  still  survive,  although  many  have  been  rather  dramatically  altered. 


essentials.    Arden  homes  were,  first  and  foremost,  economical  and  manageable,  built  to 
give  adequate  comfort  in  the  least  amount  of  space.  As  the  case  had  been  in  seventeenth 
and  eighteenth  century  America,  within  the  homes  of  Arden  multi-use  spaces  were  the 
norm,  making  little  distinction  between  public  and  private  space.  Intimacy  was  achieved 
in  a  structure's  simplicity.  A  multitude  of  rooms,  each  differentiated  according  to  its 
purpose,  was  considered  in  Arden  to  be  excessive  and  impersonal.    The  elaborate,  over- 
sized and  over-decorated  homes  of  the  wealthy  that  were  appearing  throughout  America 
at  the  end  of  die  nineteenth  century  were  not  to  be  found  in  Arden.  Price  and  Stephens 
shared  the  view  of  William  Morris  that  die  "ugliness  and  vulgarity  of  the  rich  man's 
dwellings  [were]  a  necessary  reflection  from  the  sordidness  and  bareness  of  life  which 
they  forced  upon  the  poor  people,"^^  and  were  therefore  entirely  inappropriate  to  Arden 's 
social  aims. 

Ardenites  did  not  want  to  be  slaves  to  their  homes;  they  did  not  want  to  be  burdened  by 
the  necessary  upkeep  of  their  residences.  Those  drawn  to  Arden  were  willing  to  reject  a 
life  of  etiquette  and  manners  for  the  less-refmed  lifestyle  reflected  in  Arden' s  residences. 
They  preferred  to  be  free  of  domestic  responsibility,  allowing  diem  time  for  their  artistic, 
dramatic  or  Uterary  pursuits. 

Not  only  did  die  buildings  of  Arden  define  the  landscape  of  the  community,  but  Uie 
limited  space  and  small  scale  of  the  homes  at  Arden  effectively  shaped  social  behavior 
within  the  village  as  well.  As  was  die  case  in  early  America,  die  lack  of  privacy  widiin 
the  home  resulted  in  people  being  compelled  to  utilize  the  outdoors  for  privacy  and 
solitude.  At  Arden,  this  was  an  intentional,  designed  consequence  because  it  helped  to 

^^  Morris,  News  From  Nowhere,  179. 


develop  a  highly  interactive  society.  Outdoor  common  spaces  were  actively  used  by 

those  who  sought  an  escape  from  the  intimate,  sometimes  cramped  environments  within 

their  homes.    Unlike  tiie  phenomenon  arising  out  of  the  typical  nineteenth  century 

American  suburb  where  famiUes  became  increasingly  isolated,  Arden's  conmiunity  was 

designed  to  be  more  interdependent.  The  homes  at  Arden  were  designed  in  a  manner  to 

encourage  cooperation  and  spirituality.  This  cooperative  ideal  was  also  central  to 

Stickley's  architectural  philosophy.  He  argued  that  his  Craftsman  houses  designed  for 

country  living  were  to: 

...  promote  a  cooperative  spirit.  People  are  willing  to  cooperate  if  they  can 
get  more  comfort  into  tiieir  lives  and  keep  better  in  touch  with  progress. 
And  in  die  necessary  development  of  rural  life,  problems  of  lighting,  water 
supply,  sewerage,  farm  machinery,  motive  power,  etc.,  as  well  as  of  social 
and  educational  needs,  will  have  to  be  solved  by  cooperation.  Then  with 
the  mcrease  of  common  material  interests  there  will  come  a  strengthening 
of  spirimal  ties.  In  place  of  tiie  old  feeling  of  rural  isolation  we  shall  find 
a  quickening  of  the  recreative  and  intellectual  life  of  the  people. 
Community  spirit  and  community  pride  will  become  factors  in  the 
betterment  of  rural  conditions,  until  every  township,  village,  farm  and 
open  country  will  enjoy  a  share  in  the  responsibilities  and  privileges  of 
happy  community  life,  and  so  contribute  to  die  progress  of  the  nation.^o 

As  the  Homestead  illustrates,  the  early  Arden  buildings  are  not  as  valuable  architecturally 
as  they  are  culturally.  Stiiictures  were  built  to  serve  a  function  rather  than  earn 
architectural  merit,  but  nonetheless  they  are  extremely  important  in  their  representation  of 
the  informal  lifestyle  in  Arden.    The  rustic,  simple  buildings  were  intended  to  be 
subordinate  to  the  setting,  merely  a  means  by  which  people  could  take  advantage  of  their 
rural  surroundings. 

The  Arden  Inn  (Plate  29),  another  of  Arden's  earliest  structures,  was  an  important  icon  in 
the  community  for  it  helped  to  legitimize  the  community  and  the  serious  intent  of  its 

^^Stickley,  More  Craftsman  Homes,  6. 


founders.  Historically,  the  hotel  has  played  a  pivotal  role  in  the  development  of  new 
communities  throughout  the  United  States.^  ^    As  was  the  case  throughout  the  nineteenth 
century,  especially  as  development  of  the  United  States  progressed  westward,  one  of  the 
first  buildings  to  be  constructed  in  a  new  town  was  an  inn  or  hotel  --  a  structure  which  not 
only  symbolically  celebrated  the  start  of  a  new  town  but  played  a  functional  role, 
providing  accomodations  to  visitors  and  potential  residents.    The  Arden  Inn  played  a 
similarly  symbolic  role,  signified  by  its  central  location  along  Cherry  Lane  on  the  Village 
Green  and  by  its  two-story  design,  dien  the  tallest  and  perhaps  most  conspicuous 
structure  in  Arden.92   The  Inn  offered  meals  as  well  as  a  place  to  sleep,  enabling  visitors 
to  spend  time  in  Arden  without  settling  for  an  entire  season.  And,  in  keeping  with  the 
tradition  of  the  typical  American  hotel,  the  Arden  Inn  encouraged  fellowship  and 
communal  experiences.  While  by  no  means  an  exemplary  architectural  model,  the  Arden 
Inn  was  an  important  element  of  Arden 's  early  landscape. 

Like  the  Arden  Inn,  the  Red  House  was  also  of  emblematic  importance  to  Arden  (Plates 
30-32).  The  Red  House  in  Arden  was  the  first  building  to  house  workspace  for  crafts, 
accomodating  both  the  Arden  Forge  and  Frank  Stephens'  studio;  it  also  served  as  the 
community's  first  gathering  place.  The  name  stems  from  William  Morris'  own  house, 
known  commonly  as  the  "Red  House,"  that  he  built  in  the  village  of  Upton  in  Kent, 
England  in  1859.  Morris'  Red  House,  from  the  time  of  its  construction,  served  as  a 
model  of  the  medieval  craftsmanship  that  Morris  so  enthusiastically  advocated 
throughout  his  life,  for  it  was  there  in  1861  that  he  established  Morris  &  Company,  his 

9lBoorstin,  134-40. 

^^priestman,  'The  Summer  Camp  at  Arden..."  181.  While  the  existence  of  the  Brambles  seems  to 
contradict  it,  Priestman  reported  in  1908  that  the  Arden  Inn  was  the  only  bungalow  in  the  community  to 
have  a  staircase. 


decorative  arts  firm.^^  Along  with  Edward  Bume-Jones,  Philip  Webb  and  Dante 
Rossetti,  Morris  began  to  design  and  produce  a  great  array  of  products  for  decorating  the 
house.  Furniture,  carpets,  wallpapers  and  textiles  -  all  crafted  using  traditional  medieval 
methods  and  materials  -  were  among  the  many  products  offered  by  Morris  & 
Company.^"*   Just  as  the  Red  House  in  England  was  an  expression  of  Morris,  Arden's 
Red  House  was  a  tribute  to  Morris  —  an  indication  that  Arden  aspired  to  Uve  according  to 
Morris'  principles.    When  it  was  first  constructed,  Arden's  Red  House  stood  alone, 
prominently  situated  on  the  Village  Green  at  the  comer  of  Cherry  Lane  and  Millers  Lane. 
The  Red  House  is  a  low  structure  with  a  broad  gabled  roof.  This  roof  extended  over  a 
porch  on  the  side  facing  the  Village  Green. 

All  buildings  in  Arden  were  constructed  in  the  most  economical  manner.  This  generally 
meant  that  building  efforts  were  cooperative  community  events,  ensuring  that  costs  were 
kept  down.  The  1908  American  Homes  and  Gardens  article  explained  Arden's  cost- 
saving  building  process  as  follows: 

The  people  at  Arden  have  a  very  practical  way  of  reducing  the  cost  of 
labor  for  a  building,  for  here  the  dignity  of  labor  is  at  a  high  premium,  and 
most  of  the  work  is  carried  on  by  the  community.  The  older  boys  fell  the 
trees  and  work  in  the  saw  mills,  and  do  any  building  that  is  within  their 
power,  but  as  they  are  not  expected  to  do  this  without  payment,  their  hours 
of  labor  are  credited  to  them  and  deducted  from  the  cost  of  their  board.  ^^ 

While  buildings  in  Arden  were  economical  and  simple,  they  were  also  full  of  individual 
character.  As  the  list  of  early  homes  in  Arden  demonstrates,  each  home  was  given  a 
playful  name.  These  names  assigned  to  each  house  contributed  to  the  fairyland  qualities 

^3philip  Henderson,  William  Morris,  His  Life  Work  and  Friends  (NY:  McGraw-HiU  Book  Co.,  1967). 


^^Priestman,  "The  Summer  Camp  at  Arden..."  180-81. 


of  Arden,  personalizing  and  heightening  the  importance  of  each  of  the  simple  structures. 
Adding  further  to  the  individual  character  of  Arden' s  architecture  were  the  crafts  of  the 
residents  that  were  incorporated  into  every  building.  Just  as  Gustav  Stickley  had 
recommended  that  homes  be  decorated  with  art  —  art  that  has  "given  the  producer 
pleasure  to  create"^^  --  Arden  dwellings  incorporated  handcrafted  iron  hardware  and 
lighting  fixtures,  stained  glass  windows,  murals  and  woodcarvings.  The  Homestead 
featured  a  stained  glass  window  reportedly  crafted  by  Lucy  Darling  for  Frank  Stephens. 
The  door  to  the  Red  House  was  hung  on  iron  hinges  crafted  at  the  Arden  Forge;  a 
handcrafted  iron  lantern  hung  above  this  door  as  well.  The  Monastery  (Plate  33),  a  small 
cabin  buUt  in  1908  as  Don  Stephens'  bachelor's  pad,  had  a  small  stained  glass  monk 
incorporated  into  one  of  its  leaded  glass  windows  (Plate  34). 

An  early  photograph  of  Admiral  BenBow,  another  of  the  1901  Arden  dwellings, 
demonstrates  the  use  of  fences  and  trellises  in  Arden's  early  architecture  (Plate  35).  As 
mentioned  earlier,  trellises  were  considered  appropriate  to  Craftsman  homes  because  they 
provided  an  organic  and  economical  form  of  decoration  to  an  otherwise  plain  dwelling. 
Vines  were  to  be  trained  to  grow  up  these  tree-like  structures,  literally  rooting  the 
architecture  to  its  setting,  further  emphasizing  the  desired  link  between  the  architecture 
and  its  natural  surroundings.  Vine-covered  pergolas  such  as  the  one  at  Admiral  BenBow, 
were  intended  to  create  an  appealing  and  welcoming  entrance  to  a  dwelling. 

A  series  of  other  cabins,  built  during  this  period  to  serve  the  transient  residents  of  Arden, 
were  erected  along  the  Village  Green  to  the  east  of  the  Red  House  (Plate  36).  While  an 
exact  construction  date  for  these  cabins  is  unknown,  they  were  in  place  by  1908  when 

^"Stickley,  Craftsman  Homes. 


Mabel  Priestman  reported  on  the  summer  camp  of  Arden  in  American  Homes  and 
Gardens.  She  explained  that  these  cabins  provided  accomodations  for  the  boys  who 
commonly  came  alone  to  Arden  to  spend  the  summer. ^'^ 

The  winter  of  1905  marked  the  first  winter  spent  at  Arden.  Ella  Reeve  Bloor  (commonly 
known  as  Mother  Bloor),  later  an  accomphce  of  Upton  Sinclair  in  uncovering  horrors  in 
the  meat  packing  houses  of  Chicago,  spent  the  winter  of  1905  at  the  Brambles  (Plate 
37).98  The  Brambles,  a  two-story  structure  built  in  1901  by  George  Leach  and  Harry 
Vandever,  again  exemplifies  the  simple  economical  designs  common  during  Arden' s 
early  phase  of  development.  This  dwelling,  built  for  Mother  Bloor  and  her  husband 
Louis  Cohen,  was  described  by  Bloor  in  her  memoirs  as  a  "shack"  that  they  built  for 
eighty  dollars. ^^ 

In  his  memoirs  of  Arden,  Harry  Kemp  recalled  that  most  everything  in  the  community 
had  been  built  by  hand,  giving  the  community  a  true  arts  and  crafts  feel  although  with  a 
somewhat  haphazard,  awkward  and  clumsy  feel.  Kemp  poetically  described  Arden  as 
having  "Toy  houses  picturesquely  set  under  trees  that  fringed  the  common.. .houses  with 
different,  quaint  colors...  the  "green"  in  the  centre  carefully  cropped  as  if  nibbled  by 
sheep...  well-kept  paths  of  parti-coloured  stone,  as  if  each  pebble  had  been  placed  there 
by  hand..."i°o    From  this  description,  there  is  no  doubt  that  Arden  evoked  a  romantic, 
picturesque  image.  Therefore,  the  appeal  that  Stephens  and  Price  had  intended  to  create 
had  apparently  succeeded,  at  least  in  the  eyes  of  some. 

^^Priestman,  "The  Summer  Camp  at  Arden..."  181. 
^^ Arden  Trivia  Night,  Arden,  DE,  February,  1992. 
^^loor.  We  Are  Many,  66. 
^*^Kemp,  Tramping  on  Life,  347. 


Due  to  the  fact  that  Arden  newspapers  were  unavailable  from  1902  to  1908,  the  record  of 
building  activity  during  this  six-year  period  is  scarce.  What  is  known,  however,  is  that 
development  occurred  only  on  the  Woodlands  side  (east  of  Grubbs  Road)  because  the 
Sherwood  side  (west  of  Grubbs  Road)  was  not  opened  up  for  development  until  after 

Because  of  the  limited  documentation  available  for  this  first  building  phase,  it  is  difficult 
to  know  just  how  significant  a  role  Will  Price  played  in  the  design  of  Arden' s  early 
structures.  It  is  known  that  Price  was  instrumental  in  getting  the  community  underway 
and  that  he  was  an  Arden  trustee  until  his  death  in  1916,  but  it  is  also  known  that  his 
home  was  in  Rose  Valley  and  that  he  never  lived  in  Arden.  Price's  involvement  in  the 
design  of  so  many  of  Rose  Valley's  houses  following  the  founding  of  that  community  in 
1902  helps  to  explain  why  his  characteristic  architecture  does  not  often  appear  during 
Arden' s  early  years.    It  is  not  until  1909  that  the  Arden  Club  Talk,  one  of  Arden' s  early 
newspapers,  begins  to  make  direct  reference  to  Price's  involvement  in  Arden  building 

Arden:  1909  - 1916 

There  were  some  rather  significant  changes  in  the  the  approach  to  Arden's  development 
after  1908.  The  somewhat  haphazard,  arbitrary  development  occurring  prior  to  1909, 
gave  way  to  a  more  strategic,  programmed  development  after  this  time.  Several  factors 
played  a  role  in  this  change. 

^^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  1909. 


First,  efforts  were  being  made  to  make  Arden  better  suited  for  year-round  residents.  By 
1909,  it  was  becoming  clear  to  Price  and  Stephens  that  to  effectively  attract  more  year- 
round  residents  to  Arden,  efforts  would  have  to  be  made  to  make  the  community  more 
viable  for  permanent  residency.  Specifically,  the  outdoor  spaces  which  served  as  suitable 
common  spaces  while  Arden  remained  primarily  a  summer  community  were  insufficient 
in  the  winter.  Residents  needed  winter  alternatives  -  enclosed  spaces  that  served  the 
same  social  needs  of  the  community  that  the  fields  and  woods  had  up  to  this  point.  Due 
to  the  diminutive  scale  of  the  homes  in  Arden,  this  need  for  common  space  was 
especially  pronounced.  The  common  spaces  in  Arden  were  to  serve  as  supplements  to 
the  houses,  dius  allowing  the  houses  in  Arden  to  remain  small  and  simple.  The  Gild  Hall, 
established  in  1909,  was  the  first  of  these  indoor  common  spaces  to  be  realized. 

The  second  factor  impacting  development  in  Arden  after  1908  was  the  interest  in 

upgrading  the  general  appearance  of  the  community.  One  visitor  to  Arden  in  1909 

commented  that  'The  plan  of  development  could  be  improved,  principally  by  having  all 

the  structures,  however  small  they  may  be,  built  of  such  material  as  would  lend  an  air  of 

solidity  and  permanence."  ^'^^    This  visitor  was  not  the  only  one  who  felt  Arden  was  in 

need  of  aesthetic  improvements.  In  February  1909,  Joseph  Fels,  Arden' s  primary  source 

of  financial  support,  presented  the  community  with  a  gift  of  $5,000  to  assist  in  building  at 

Arden.  Fels'  gift,  stipulating  that  Will  Price  be  the  architect  of  the  new  buildings,  points 

to  the  fact  that  Fels  also  believed  Arden  needed  a  boost  in  its  appearance.  The  Arden 

Club  Talk  of  March  1909  announced  Fels'  gift: 

Joseph  Fels  left,  subject  to  Will  Price's  order,  several  thousand  dollars  to 
build  at  once  four  or  five  cottages  from  that  master  craftsman's  designs; 

^^^Arden  Club  Talk,  December  1909.  William  Jeffery,  interested  in  planning  a  community  similar  to 
Arden  in  the  Berkeley  Hills  near  Plainfield,  NJ,  paid  a  visit  to  Arden  in  1909,  making  comments  on  Arden's 
overall  appearance. 


the  one  stipulation  was  that  they  should  be  permanent  and  artistic  in 
character  with  stone  foundations  and  cellars,  hollow  brick  and  concrete 
walls  and  above  all,  literally,  the  red  tiled  roofs  so  beautiful  in  the  scenery 
of  England  and  the  Netiierlands.i^^ 

This  statement  is  of  critical  importance  in  understanding  the  evolution  of  Arden's 
architecture  because  it  was  this  gift  that  marked  tiie  start  of  tiie  so-called  second  phase  of 
development,  setting  into  motion  a  spurt  of  building  activity  in  Arden  between  1909  and 
1913.  A  letter  dated  February  4, 1909  from  Frank  Stephens  to  his  son  Don  suggests  that 
work  got  started  in  Arden  immediately  after  Pels'  gift  was  received. 

My  dear  Son  - 

I  think  the  tide  has  turned  for  us.  Joe  Feb  has  left  $5,000  here  to 
go  ahead  with  building  at  once  --  Will  Price  and  I  will  be  down  on 
the  11:30  or  2:20  train  Saturday.  Don  'tfail  to  be  in  Arden  that 
afternoon  if  possible... 

Yours  Always, 
Frank  ^^ 

The  torrent  of  building  activity  which  got  underway  in  Arden  in  1909  was  noted  in  an 
issue  of  the  Arden  Club  Talk:  "There  is  not  an  idle  man  or  boy  in  tiie  village.  The  saw 
mill  has  been  singing  at  the  Wood's  Edge  on  the  Sherwood  side  and  witiiin  the  woods 
bars  and  picks  clang  in  the  rock  beds  beside  tiie  brook  and  teams  drag  out  stone  loaded 
sleds"  (Plate  38).  Not  only  does  tiiis  report  record  the  level  of  building  activity  occurring, 
but  it  also  documents  tiie  fact  tiiat  many  of  tiie  materials  used  for  the  houses  built  in  tiiis 
second  phase  were  resourcefully  gathered  from  Arden's  own  fields  and  woods. 

The  fact  tiiat  Joseph  Fels  advised  that  Will  Price  be  in  charge  of  the  design  of  tiie  new 
buildings  in  Arden,  signifies  tiie  importance  of  Price's  role  in  the  second  phase  of 

^^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  March  -  April  1909. 

^^Transcribed  letter  from  Frank  Stephens  to  Don  Stephens,  February  4,  1909  [AA].  The  letter  was  sent 

from  Philadelphia  on  The  Art  Club  of  Philadelphia  stationery  to  Arden. 


Arden's  development.  Under  Price's  guidance,  the  architecture  within  Arden's  second 
phase  of  development  became  notably  more  substantial,  more  permanent  and  more 
artistic,  just  as  Pels  had  recommended.    These  improvements  helped  to  upgrade  the 
community's  general  appearance,  thus  giving  more  credibility  to  the  social  goals  of 
Arden  by  making  the  community  appear  more  stable. 

Among  the  most  significant  buildings  constructed  during  this  second  phase  of 

development  were:^^^ 

Second  Homestead  1909 

Priendly  Gables  1909 

Green  Gate  (Lulu  Clark  House)  1909 

Woolery's  Grocery  Store  1909 
Upton  Sinclair  House  ("Jungalow")    1910 

The  Lodge  1910 

Rest  Cottage  1910 

GUd  Hall  Conversion  1910 

Kitty  Ross  House  1911 

TheCraftshop  1913 

Just  as  the  original  Homestead  was  discussed  as  a  typical  home  of  the  first  phase  of 
building  in  Arden  (pre- 1909),  the  Second  Homestead  serves  as  a  good  model  for 
examining  the  changes  that  occurred  in  the  second  phase  of  development  (Plates  39-40). 
In  contrast  to  the  original  Homestead,  the  Second  Homestead  is  far  more  decorative  and 
polished.  The  fact  that  the  Second  Homestead  was  built  directly  in  front  of  the  original 
Homestead  suggests  that  the  newer  structure  was  to  represent  the  new  look  for  Arden  — 
architecture  that  was  more  refined  but  still  retaining  its  miniature  scale  and  craftsman 
appeal.  The  structures  of  the  second  phase  continued  to  uphold  Gustav  Stickley's  aim  of 
achieving  "beauty  through  elimination."  ^^^ 

^^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  1909-10.  AU  of  these  buildings  still  survive. 
106stickley,  More  Craftsman  Homes,  3. 


The  Second  Homestead,  like  most  of  the  other  homes  of  the  period,  was  built  of  more 
permanent  materials  and  with  considerably  more  attention  given  to  detail.  This 
Homestead,  featuring  the  requisite  stone  foundation,  hollow  tile  construction,  and  tile 
roof  recommended  by  Pels,  was  a  far  cry  from  the  log  veneer  and  tar  paper  roofs  of  some 
of  Arden's  earliest  homes. 

Price,  in  his  design  for  the  Second  Homestead,  intended  to  remain  consistent  with  the 
idea  of  being  in  harmony  with  nature,  however,  it  was  somewhat  of  a  different  approach 
than  during  the  first  eight  years  of  building  in  Arden.  With  the  Second  Homestead  Price 
began  to  instill  his  newest  design  techniques  upon  Arden.  Just  as  he  had  carried  out  in 
Rose  Valley,  Price  built  homes  that  incorporated  his  rough  stone,  hollow  tile  and  plaster 
construction  method.  The  justification  for  this  approach  was  best  put  in  Price's  own 
words.  In  a  191 1  article  in  The  Brickbuilder,  Price  described  his  design  strategy  which  he 
employed  at  both  Rose  Valley  and  at  Arden.    It  was  Price's  intention  that  houses  "grow 
up  from  their  foundations."  Price  claimed  that  for  the  setting  "to  establish  a  friendly 
relationship  with  the  structures  the  walls  are  first  erected  of  [local  stone],  but  the  stone  is 
finally  lost  by  a  gradual  merging  of  the  mortar  of  its  joints  into  the  full  plaster  wall 
surface  above."  ^^^  Due  to  Price's  influence,  plaster  (stucco)  construction  became  more 
typical  during  Arden's  second  phase,  replacing  the  more  prevalent,  cruder  wood  cabins 
and  bungalows  built  during  the  first  phase. 

The  interior  of  the  Second  Homestead  typifies  the  simplicity  of  Price's  designs.  The  first 
floor  of  the  house  has  a  very  compact  yet  open  plan,  with  only  suggested  divisions 

lO^wilUam  Price,  "Decorative  Treatment  of  Plaster  Walls,"  The  Brickbuilder.  Vol.  20,  1911,  185. 


between  the  dining  area,  living  room,  front  living  hall  and  kitchen.  Upstairs,  the  spaces 
are  more  divided  simply  by  the  nature  of  the  tall  gables  which  form  two  separate  rooms, 
each  with  a  peaked  ceiling.  The  southern  orientation  of  the  house,  together  with  the  bank 
of  casement  windows,  ensured  that  these  spaces  were  light-filled,  cheery,  and  suitable  as 
studio  space  (Plate  42). 

At  ±e  core  of  the  Second  Homestead  plan  is  a  fireplace  contained  in  the  front  living  hall, 
and  set  on  an  angle,  directed  towards  the  front  doorway  (Plate  41).    In  an  effort  to  make 
the  new  houses  in  Arden  more  suitable  for  year-round  dwelling,  the  fireplace  was  more 
prevalent  in  buildings  designed  after  1908.  The  fireplace,  a  very  important  characteristic 
of  craftsman  homes,  was  considered  to  be  an  icon  of  domesticity,  serving  as  a  focal  point 
for  the  family  in  residence.  Gustav  Stickley  claimed  that  every  Craftsman  home  was  to 
have  a  central  room  that  contained  a  fireplace  -  a  space  that  provided  "the  opportunity 
for  people  to  come  together,  to  sit  around  the  fireplace,  for  there  must  always  be  an  open 
fire.  It  is  the  room  where  people  read  or  study  or  work  evenings,  or  play  or  dance... 
where  the  children  will  store  up  memories  that  can  never  die."'*^^    In  the  Second 
Homestead,  the  open  arrangement  of  the  rooms  allowed  for  the  dining  room  and  living 
room  to  benefit  from  this  centrally  located  fireplace. 

Bearing  the  inscription  "Tomorrow  is  Another  Day,"  the  Second  Homestead  looks  to  the 
future,  speaking  in  an  optimistic,  idealistic  tone  that  tells  of  the  hope  for  the  future  of 
Arden  and  for  die  country  (Plate  43).  This  inscription  also  confirms  the  fact  that  despite 
efforts  to  upgrade  Arden' s  physical  appearance,  Arden' s  social  objectives  remained 

^^^Stickley,  More  Craftsman  Homes,  1. 


firmly  rooted  and  of  paramount  importance.  In  this  case,  the  architecture  had  simply 
become  a  vehicle  with  which  to  spread  the  word. 

As  the  Second  Homestead  shows,  the  houses  built  during  Arden's  second  phase  did  lose 
some  of  their  primitive  bungalow  characteristics,  taking  on  more  complex  silhouettes 
with  their  peaks  and  gables,  decorated  bargeboards,  and  stone  chimneys.  Moving  away 
from  the  standard  gabled  roof  typical  of  Arden's  earliest  dwellings,  the  newer  homes 
featured  projecting  dormers  and  overhanging  eaves,  the  angles  and  shadows  of  which 
added  greatly  to  the  character  of  the  structures.  As  the  Second  Homestead  illustrates, 
despite  the  increased  intricacy  of  the  house  designs,  the  cozy,  compact  qualities  of  the 
houses  were  retained. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  heightened  sophistication  of  Arden's  structures  during  this 
second  phase  of  development  was  due  to  William  Price's  involvements,  as  well  as  the 
recommendation  made  by  Joseph  Pels  that  the  homes  be  "permanent  and  artistic  in 
character."  The  architectural  characteristics  advocated  by  William  Morris  in  News  From 
Nowhere  also  begin  to  be  more  apparent  during  this  second  phase  of  building  at  Arden. 
Morris  believed  homes  should  be  low,  not  large,  have  tiled  roofs,  gardens,  and  should 
back  up  to  a  forest  of  tall  trees.  In  an  idealistic  sense,  Morris  thought  homes  should  be 
"comfortable,...  as  if  they  were,  so  to  say,  alive  and  sympathetic  with  the  life  of  the 
dwellers  in  them..."^'^ 

^^Morris,  News  From  Nowhere,  9. 



Price  appears  to  have  designed  these  homes  in  the  second  phase  of  Arden's  development 

to  be  more  in  keeping  with  his  so-called  "House  of  the  Democrat,"  his  notion  of  an  ideal 

house.  Price  described  his  model  house  as  being: 

...set  in  a  place  of  greenery,  for  the  world  is  a  large  place  and  its  loveliness 
mostly  a  wilderness;  it  shall  be  far  enough  away  from  its  next  for  privacy 
and  not  too  far  for  neighborliness;  it  shall  have  a  little  space  knit  within  a 
garden  wall;  flowers  shall  creep  up  to  its  warmth,  and  flow,  guided,  but 
unrebuked,  over  wall  and  low-drooped  eaves...  The  rooms  of  this  house 
shall  be  ample,  and  low,  wide-windowed,  deep-seated,  spacious,  cool  by 
reason  of  shadows  in  summer,  wanm  by  the  ruddy  glow  of  firesides  in 
winter,  open  to  wistful  airs,  tight  closed  against  the  wintry  blasts:  a  house, 
a  home,  a  shrine;  a  little  democracy  unjealous  of  of  the  greater  world,  and 
pouring  forth  the  spirit  of  its  own  sure  justness  for  the  commonwealth.  ^^^ 

Friendly  Gables  (Plate  44),  built  in  1909  for  the  Steinlein  family,  was  the  first  of  the 
houses  built  by  Price  with  Pels'  funds.^^^  The  home  was  reportedly  modeled  after  Price's 
design  for  the  Harry  Hetzel  house  in  Rose  Valley.  ^^^  Ljjjg  the  Second  Homestead,  the 
interior  was  designed  to  be  open,  with  a  stone  fireplace  opposite  the  fi^ont  door  serving  as 
the  central  core  of  the  house.  The  structure  had  exposed  timber  beams  and  low  ceilings. 
The  heavy  wood  door,  constructed  of  heavy  vertical  timbers  and  held  in  place  with  sturdy 
iron  hardware  crafted  at  the  Arden  Forge,  articulates  the  kind  of  craftsmanship  with 
which  these  houses  were  constructed.    The  Arden  printery,  run  by  Fred  Steinlein,  was 
contained  in  the  basement  of  Friendly  Gables. 

Green  Gate,  located  along  The  Sweep,  was  also  built  in  1909,  as  the  date  on  the  chimney 
indicates  (Plates  45,  46).  This  was  the  second  of  the  so-called  "Fels'  cottages"  designed 
by  Price.  ^  ^^  In  fine  Price  style,  the  exterior  of  this  small  stuccoed  house  built  for  Lulu 

^  ^*^Price,  "House  of  the  DemoCTat,"  9. 
^^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  May  1909. 
^^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  March  -  April  1909. 
'^'^^Arden  Club  Talk,  June  1909. 


Clark  was  decorated  with  inset  tiles.  This  distinctive  tilework  was  also  incorporated  into 

nearly  every  one  of  Price's  building  designs  in  Rose  Valley.  Price  believed  clay  tile,  to 

be  the  most  befitting  and  most  enriching  decorative  treatment  for  his  hollow  tile  and 

stucco  dwellings.  In  an  article  on  the  decorative  treatment  of  plaster  walls.  Price 


If  a  closely  allied  material  which  can  be  reasonably  embedded  in  the  wall 
surface  be  used  in  such  a  way  as  to  seem  part  of  that  surface,  there  can  be 
no  objection  to  such  use  of  color  for  enrichment  instead  of  modeled 
ornament;  and  burnt  clay  products  which  can  be  fashioned  in  innumerable 
forms  and  colors,  glazed  an  unglazed,  when  so  separated  in  design  as  to 
allow  the  wall  surface  to  penetrate  and  tie  it  to  that  surface  is  ahnost  an 
ideal  form  of  wall  decoration,  i^"^ 

In  Arden,  tilework  decoration  was  particularly  suitable  because  it  was  relatively 

inexpensive  and  yet  added  tremendously  to  the  overall  decorative  style  of  a  building. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  Price  had  Arden  in  mind  when  he  expressed  in  his  191 1  article  m 

The  Brickbuilder  that  "even  in  the  humblest  plaster  cottage  a  few  spots  of  color...  may  be 

worked  out  to  give  the  greatest  distinction  to  the  simplest  design."  i  ^^    Another  notable 

characteristic  of  Green  Gate's  exterior  is  the  bold  rough  stone  chimney.  Clearly,  Price 

used  this  stone  chimney  to  communicate  the  permanence  and  sturdiness  of  the  dwelling,  a 

quality  missing  from  many  of  Arden' s  earlier  structures. 

The  dining  room  in  Green  Gate  was  embellished  with  a  wrap-around  mural  painted  above 
the  wainscoting  (Plates  47, 48).  This  mural,  executed  by  early  Arden  resident  Buzz  Ware 
at  the  age  of  16,ii^  exemplifies  how  the  crafts  of  Arden  residents  were  shared  and 
incorporated  into  one  another's  homes.  The  house  was  also  outfitted  with  leaded  glass 

ll^Price,  "Decorative  Treatment  of  Plaster  Walls,"  The  Brickbuilder,  Vol.20,  1911,  181. 

ll^ibid.,  184. 

ll^Conversation  with  Ann  Berlin,  the  current  resident  of  Green  Gate,  on  April  5,  1992.  She  reported  that 

the  mural  was  painted  by  Buzz  Ware. 


windows  crafted  by  Ardenites,  ironwork  from  the  Arden  Forge,  and  built-in  furniture.  In 
true  medieval  style  as  advocated  by  William  Morris,  the  built-in  sideboard  in  the  dining 
room  featured  a  gilded  inscription  "La  Vero  Vin  Liberigo"  ~  the  good  wine  liberates! 

Next  to  Green  Gate  and  constructed  during  the  same  building  campaign  was  The  Lodge, 
another  William  Price  design  (Plates  52,  53).  i^'^  The  Lodge  was  begun  in  1910  for  Miss 
Lucy  Darling  who  had  previously  been  residing  in  the  Red  House.  This  house,  like  the 
Second  Homestead  and  Friendly  Gables,  was  constructed  of  hollow  tile  and  plaster.  But 
unlike  Price's  other  Arden  structures,  the  Lodge  was  characteristically  symmetrical  with  a 
broad  center  gable  projecting  from  the  front  facade  and  a  chimney  at  both  the  east  and 
west  ends  of  the  house.  The  center  gable  featured  half- timbering,  a  method  of  decoration 
advocated  by  William  Morris  for  its  ties  to  English  medieval  architecture  and  popularized 
in  The  Craftsman}'^^  Half- timber  decoration  was  liberally  used  by  Price  at  Overbrook 
and  Rose  Valley  as  well  as  on  several  of  his  Arden  dwellings  as  a  way  of  breaking  up  the 
otherwise  stark  stucco  facades  with  boldly  contrasting  timber  elements. 

Rest  Cottage,  located  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Village  Green  from  Upton  Sinclair's 
house,  was  another  Price-designed  house  built  in  1910  (Plates  54-56).    This  house,  with 
its  decorative  bargeboards,  overhanging  eaves,  stucco  finish  and  rough  stone  foundation, 
incorporated  many  of  the  characteristics  recommended  by  Joseph  Fels  and  outlined  in  his 
letter  of  1909.^1^  Like  The  Lodge,  Rest  Cottage  featured  modified  half-timbering  which 
helped  to  give  definition  to  the  various  projecting  and  recessed  elements  of  the  house. 
The  house  was  characterized  by  its  broad  sloping  gabled  roof  extending  down  below  the 

^^"^ Arden  Leaves,  April  1911. 
^^^Morris,  News  From  Nowhere,  25. 
^"^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  March  -  April,  1909. 


first  floor  level  as  if  it  were  reaching  for  the  ground,  thereby  enclosing  the  house  into  a 
single  unified  form.  On  the  west  end  of  the  house  this  unified  form  was  not  as 
pronounced,  the  roof  at  this  end  extending  down  only  to  the  second  floor.  Bands  of 
casement  windows,  placed  on  all  four  sides  of  the  dwelling,  provided  for  ample  light  and 
ventilation  into  the  interior  portions  of  the  house.  The  house  was  designed  with  two 
chimneys  --  an  interior  chimney  of  rough  stone  and  an  end  chimney  of  patterned  red 
brick.  Price's  use  of  a  variety  of  materials  in  this  dwelling  illustrated  his  interest  in  the 
coloration  and  decorative  qualities  achieved  by  using  different  building  materials  in 
varying  combinations.  This  building  has  also  undergone  a  renovation;  a  sizeable  addition 
was  recently  added  along  the  south  side  of  the  dwelling. 

The  Upton  Sinclair  house,  while  not  a  Price  design,  exemplifies  other  building  styles 
under  construction  in  Arden  between  1909  and  1910  (Plate  57).    In  his  autobiography, 
Upton  Sinclair  stated  that  his  two-story  cottage,  designed  by  Frank  Stephens,  was  painted 
brown  on  the  exterior  and  stained  on  the  interior;  the  front  of  the  house  had  a  living  room 
with  an  open  fireplace;  the  living  room  had  a  high  shelf  running  all  the  way  around  the 
room  that  held  his  books.  The  cost  to  build  the  house  was  $2,600. 120  in  his  memoirs, 
Sinclair  reported  that  his  fu-st  year  at  Arden  had  been  spent  in  a  tent,  enduring  the  winter 
by  installing  a  stove  in  his  tent.  Sinclair's  daily  routine  over  that  winter  included  a 
morning  bath  in  a  tin  basin  on  a  carpet  of  newspaper  on  the  floor  of  the  tent.  It  was 
during  that  winter  that  his  book  Love 's  Pilgrimage  was  accepted  for  publication,  and  he 
quickly  made  the  decision  that  the  $1,250  advance  payment  that  he  received  would  be  put 
toward  the  construction  of  a  cottage  on  his  lot  at  Arden.  When  the  house  was  completed 

l^Oupton  Sinclair,  The  Autobiography  of  Upton  Sinclair  (NY:  Harcourt,  Brace  &  World,  1962),  166. 


in  the  early  spring  of  191 1,^^!  it  was  named  "The  Jungalow,"  a  witty  play  on  Sinclair's 
highly  acclaimed  book  The  Jungle  which  had  been  published  just  four  years  before 
Sinclair  arrived  in  Arden.  The  house  has  now  been  greatly  altered  and  is  now  commonly 
referred  to  as  the  "Mary  Bruce  Inn." 

Among  the  other  Arden  houses  under  construction  in  1910  were  Harold  Wares'  house 
("The  Barnacle")  at  1704  Green  Lane,  W.L.  Lightbown's  house  ("Cosy  Comer")  on  the 
southeast  comer  of  the  Village  Green,  and  Olive  Meyer's  home  at  2223  Mill  Lane.^^^ 

The  Katherine  Ross  bungalow,  where  Kitty  Ross  one  of  the  early  Arden  tmstees  lived, 
was  begun  in  191  l(Plate  58). ^^^    Like  Friendly  Gables  and  the  Lulu  Clark  house,  its 
interior  space  posessed  low,  beamed  ceilings,  leaded  glass  windows,  and  warm,  rich, 
unpainted  wainscoting  (Plate  59).  In  one  of  the  upstairs  bedrooms,  there  is  a  projecting 
sunroom  designed  to  provide  a  view  of  Arden's  forests. 

The  renovation  of  The  Brambles  between  1910  and  1912  is  also  effective  in  illustrating 
the  type  of  improvements  made  in  Arden  during  its  second  phase  of  development.    Frank 
B.  Downs  substantially  altered  The  Brambles,  expanding  the  house  on  either  end  by 
adding  two  sprawling  wings  with  broad  overhanging  eaves  (Plates  60,  61).  The  main 
shape  of  the  original  dwelling  was  maintained  but  was  hardly  recognizable  due  to  the 
expansions.  The  fragile  timber  piers  originally  supporting  the  two-story  porch  were 
replaced  by  sturdy  rough  stone  piers.  The  new  wings  featured  the  requisite  rough  stone 
base,  thus  making  the  alterations  to  The  Brambles  in  keeping  with  the  design 

121  Ibid.,  166. 
^^^Arden  Leaves,  1910. 
^^ Arden  Leaves,  May  1912. 


modifications  being  made  throughout  Arden  during  this  second  phase  of  development. 
These  additions  to  The  Brambles  resulted  in  one  of  the  very  largest,  most  expensive 
dwellings  in  Arden;  this  house  was  reportedly  the  first  Arden  residence  to  have  running 
water  (Plate  62).  124 

Interestingly,  the  people  of  Arden  considered  themselves  to  be  pioneers,  always  trying  to 
make  adaptations  to  their  community  and  to  their  lifestyle  to  ensure  the  integrity  and  the 
future  of  their  Utopia.  The  Arden  Leaves  makes  mention  of  "the  confusion  and  struggle 
of  pioneer  life,  the  building  of  shelter  and  finding  of  food,  the  establishment  of  industries 
that  shall  keep  the  roof  over  one's  head  and  the  bread  upon's  one  table.. ."^25  Among 
these  struggles,  made  evident  in  the  slow  evolution  of  the  community,  was  the 
development  of  sufficient  space  to  serve  the  social  and  artistic  needs  of  die  community. 
As  the  number  of  year-round  residents  began  to  increase  the  need  for  indoor  common 
space  became  especially  pronoumced.  Solutions  for  shortcomings  of  the  community 
often  came  in  the  form  of  additional  buildings,  that  is,  if  the  community  had  adequate 

Gild  Hal! 

The  Gild  Hall  was  the  first  new  community  building  to  be  built  during  Arden's  second 
phase  of  development.  This  structure  was  to  replace  the  Red  House,  Arden's  original 
community  gathering  place  that  was  by  that  time  too  small  to  serve  the  needs  of  Arden's 
growing  population.  The  Gild  Hall  was  intended  to  be  a  clubhouse  for  the  newly  formed 

124'Many  Ardenites  Are  Sore  Today,"  June  27,  1910,  newspaper  article  in  the  Arden  Scrapbook  [HSD]. 
^^Arden  Leaves.  1910. 


Arden  Club,  an  organization  established  in  1908  to  promote  the  social  and  educational 
interests  of  Arden.  ^26 

Understanding  the  dire  need  for  a  new  clubhouse,  but  also  aware  of  the  Arden  Club's 
budgetary  restrictions,  Frank  Stephens  and  Will  Price  decided  in  1909  to  give  the  old 
Derrickson  Bam  to  the  Arden  Club  for  use  as  a  Gild  Hall.^27  William  Price  drew  up 
plans  for  the  conversion  of  the  bam,  estimating  its  cost  of  constmction  to  be  $2,700.  ^^^ 
Like  most  building  projects  in  Arden,  the  constmction  of  Gild  Hall  was  a  community 
effort.  A  "floor-laying  bee"  in  June  of  1910  attracted  wide  attention  for  it  involved  the 
entire  Arden  community,  even  the  most  famed  Arden  resident  Upton  Sinclair.^29 

The  conversion  in  1910  of  the  bam  into  the  Gild  Hall  retained  many  of  the  original  bam 
characteristics,  including  the  open  stalls  of  the  ground  level  on  the  south  side  of  the 
structure  adapted  into  a  performance  area,  the  vertical  planking  of  the  walls,  the  gable 
roof,  and  the  rough  stone  foundation  (Plates  65,  66).  The  interior  spaces  reveal  the 
building's  early  constmction.  The  hewn  oak  timber  frame  of  the  bam  was  exposed  on  the 
inside  of  the  Gild  Hall,  becoming  an  integral  part  of  the  interior  decoration.  The  main 
floor  was  used  as  a  dance  hall,  and  the  basement  area  was  adapted  into  a  performance 
space  known  as  the  Moonlight  Theater.  When  this  theater  was  first  built,  it  was  open  to 
the  outside  along  the  soudi  side  of  the  stmcture.  A  one-story  rough  stone  and  stucco 
addition  was  attached  to  the  northwest  side  of  the  building  along  Orleans  Road  to  house 
the  Arden  Club's  library.  Fireplaces  were  also  a  feature  added  during  the  bam 

^^^Arden  Club  TalL  1908. 

127 Ibid. 


129'-Many  .Ardenites  are  Sore  Today,"  Wilmington  Morning  News,  June  27,  1910,  Arden  Scrapbook,  1910. 

At  the  time  of  this  floor  laying  session,  Upton  Sinclair  was  new  to  Arden,  having  just  relocated  that 

summer  of  1910  from  Fairhope,  Alabama. 


conversion:  one  fireplace  served  the  upper  level  dance  hall,  while  the  other  provided  heat 
to  the  library.  Today,  the  large  open  room  on  the  main  floor  contains  both  a  dance  hall 
and  performance  space  with  a  stage  at  the  northeast  end  of  the  room.    The  basement  now 
has  a  kitchen  and  dining  facilities  where  community  dinners  are  held  every  Saturday. 

The  Gild  Hall  had  originally  been  planned  to  be  built  along  the  Village  Green  where  the 
craftshop  now  stands,  however,  the  offering  of  the  bam  by  Stephens  and  Price  for  use  as 
the  new  Arden  Club  was  an  opportunity  that  could  not  be  passed  up.  Not  only  was  this  a 
more  feasible  offering  but  the  location  was  considered  to  be  somewhat  more  desirable 
because  it  distributed  Arden' s  building  development  onto  Arden' s  Sherwood  side 
(southwest  of  Grubbs  Road).  Thus,  the  concentration  of  building  along  the  Village  Green 
was  then  interrupted,  the  newest  and  one  of  the  most  significant  buildings  in  Arden  had 
been  established  on  the  Sherwood  Side  of  Arden.    Consequently,  the  Gild  Hall  helped  to 
accelerate  building  efforts  to  the  west  of  Grubb's  Road. 

The  Craftshop 

The  Craftshop  was  the  second  community  building  to  be  constructed  in  Arden' s  second 
phase  (Plate  67).  With  a  prominent  location  on  the  southwest  comer  of  the  Village  Green 
next  to  Lhe  Red  House,  the  Craftshop  was  a  particularly  important  structure  for  Arden 
because  it  marked  a  critical  step  towards  encouraging  the  arts  in  Arden.  In  1912  among 
the  many  dilemmas  that  Arden  faced  was  the  question  of  how  to  earn  a  living  in  Arden. 
Against  the  aspirations  of  Price  and  Stephens  who  wanted  to  see  Arden  be  at  least 
somewhat  self-sufficient,  people  living  in  Arden  continued  to  retum  to  the  city  during  the 
Fall  and  Winter  because  the  city  was  where  they  earned  their  wages.  This  being  the  case, 
a  logical  solution  according  to  Price  and  Stephens  was  to  build  a  craftshop  which  would 


provide  Ardenites  with  a  place  to  produce  their  goods.  The  building,  started  in  1913,  was 
intended  as  a  place  such  as  the  "Banded-workshop"  presented  in  Morris'  News  From 
Nowhere  where  artists  could  work  together  in  a  cooperative  situation,  sharing  ideas  and 
generating  artistic  energy,  ^^o  The  hope  was  that  the  provision  of  artist  space  would 
enable  Arden  artists  to  produce  wares  to  sell  outside  of  Arden. 

William  Price,  the  Gildmaster  of  the  Craftsmen's  Gild,  designed  and  supervised  the 
construction  of  the  Craftshop,  reporting  on  construction  progress  in  every  issue  of  the 
Arden  Leaves.    In  keeping  with  its  intended  puipose,  the  craftshop  was  designed  to  house 
a  variety  of  crafts.  In  the  basement,  in  addition  to  the  water  pump  and  other  plumbing 
equipment,  was  a  bakery.  On  the  first  floor,  space  was  provided  for  a  woodworking 
shop,  a  salesroom  for  selling  Arden  arts,  and  a  room  for  sewing  and  costume  work.i^i 
On  the  upper  floors,  there  were  areas  designated  for  weaving  and  metalwork,  other  small 
artist  studios,  and  a  large  room  intended  for  classroom  use. 

Under  Price's  guidance,  the  craftshop  was  carried  out  in  an  expedient  manner,  far  more 
quickly  than  most  building  projects  in  Arden.  Conceived  in  February  1913,  the  craftshop 
was  already  built  up  to  its  second  floor  by  the  end  of  that  summer.  The  building  was 
constructed  with  a  concrete  foundation,  a  first  floor  of  rough  stone,  and  a  wood  frame 
upper  floor  with  a  stucco  and  half-timber  exterior.  132    The  oak  and  poplar  timber  used  in 

l-^^Morris,  News  From  Nowhere,  52;  Arden  Leaves,  June  1913. 

^^^  Arden  Leaves,  August  1913.  Price,  in  his  description  of  the  progress  of  the  craftshop,  could  not  help  but 
include  some  editorial  comment  regarding  his  distaste  for  the  pretentious  clothing  admired  by  Americans. 
Telling  of  the  space  within  the  craftshop  designated  as  a  sewing  room,  Price  states  that  he  hopes  that  "some 
designing  person  will  have  the  courage  to  make  clothing  for  daily  use  which  will  distinguish  between 
draping  the  human  figure  and  upholstering  it,  and  will  do  something  to  put  out  of  fashion  the  black  derby 
hats  and  colorless  remnants  of  starched  shirts  with  superimposed  suspenders..." 
^•^^Arden  Leaves,  August  1913. 


the  construction  of  the  building  was  cut  from  the  Arden  Woods,  carefully  selected  so  that 
the  woods  would  not  be  negatively  impacted  by  the  cutting.  ^33 

Today  the  Arden  Craftshop  no  longer  functions  as  it  was  originally  planned.  The 
craftshop  was  closed  in  1936  and  it  has  since  been  converted  into  an  apartment  building 
(Plate  68). 

Arden  Church 

While  the  Gild  Hall  and  Craftshop,  both  intended  to  enhance  the  community  and  artistic 
spirit  in  Arden,  were  in  fact  successfully  constructed,  the  Arden  Church  was  one  structure 
that  never  came  to  be.  Nonetheless,  the  church  is  important  because  it  demonstrates  the 
determination  of  Arden  residents  m  their  neverending  battle  to  further  improve  their 
community.  Planned  as  a  non-denominational  church,  the  Arden  Church  was  to  serve  not 
as  a  place  of  worship  but  as  a  symbol  of  the  community,  a  place  to  hang  the  village 
chimes  and  to  house  the  great  pipe  organ.i34  The  church  was  also  to  serve  as  a  place  to 
gather  to  remember  those  who  had  passed  away.  Without  a  church  it  was  thought  that 
there  was  "no  fitting  place  in  which  [the  people  of  Arden]  may  meet  together,  or  come 
alone  in  memory  of  our  own,  to  be  out  of  the  noise  and  struggle  of  shop  and  marketplace 
a  little,  out  of  the  narrow  things  of  home  and  hearthfire,  to  remember  and  to  hope..."i35 

Not  only  was  the  church  to  serve  as  another  community  place,  but  the  construction  of  the 
church  was  to  provide  employment  for  Arden  residents,  and  "to  foster  the  art  crafts 

^^^Arden  Leaves,  July  1913. 

^^Arden  Leaves.  December  1912.  WUl  Price  had  reportedly  donated  an  organ  from  Rose  Valley  which 

had  been  repaired  and  tuned  by  Arden  resident  J.C.  Cake. 

^^^ Arden  Leaves,  October  1912. 


already  growing  among  us  --  masonry,  carpentry,  wood  carving,  painting  and  the  like, 
and  will  begin  others  that  should  be  growing  among  us,  modeling,  stone  carving  and 
wrought  metal." ^^^ 

The  idea  of  a  church  was  first  proposed  in  1909  although  active  solicitation  of  funds  for 
the  church  did  not  begin  until  1910.  Will  Price  came  up  with  a  design  for  the  church 
based  on  an  English  church  design  procured  by  English  architect  Raymond  Unwin. 
Reportedly,  Unwin  sent  the  design  from  England  to  Price  to  be  adapted  for  use  at  Arden. 
According  to  the  Arden  Leaves,  the  design  is  from  a  thirteenth  century  English  church  at 
Stoke  Poges,  a  medieval  style  of  the  sort  advocated  by  Englishmen  William  Morris  and 
John  Ruskin. i37  Price's  original  pencil  sketch  of  Arden's  proposed  church  is  dated 
February  9,  1910  (Plate  70).  The  church  is  rather  squat  with  a  two  story,  square 
buttressed  tower,  topped  with  a  spire.  The  main  entrance  to  the  church  is  on  the  first 
floor  of  this  tower.  Tlie  site  selected  for  the  church  was  a  quarter-acre  plot,  on  the 
Sherwood  Side  of  Arden  on  the  Meadow  Green,  at  the  point  where  The  Sweep  meets 
Grubb's  Road  (see  Appendix  E  for  map). 

Though  all  the  necessary  funds  for  the  church  construction  had  not  yet  been  raised,  work 
on  the  church  nevertheless  began,  with  the  foundations  being  laid  in  1910.^38    Some 
believed  this  hasty  approach  to  the  construction  of  the  church  was  foolhardy,  others 
thought  that  although  an  impractical  approach,  it  was  the  only  way  visionaries  achieved 
their  dreams.  Unfortunately  for  Arden,  the  church  was  never  finished  and  only  the 

^^^ Arden  Leaves,  September  1911. 


^^^ Arden  Leaves,  November  1910. 


foundations,  still  visible  in  the  meadow  below  the  Green  Memorial  Garden,  remain  as  a 
reminder  to  this  unfulfilled  dream. 

The  Cooler 

The  Cooler,  the  local  ice  cream  parlor,  represented  another  useful  community  space, 
designed  as  a  space  for  casual  congregation  (Plate  71).  Its  broad  covered  porch  open  to 
Millers  Lane  invited  people  to  sit  and  enjoy  their  refreshments.  Located  behind  the 
Craftshop,  the  Cooler  was  ideally  situated  to  accomodate  not  only  the  artisans  working  in 
the  Craftshop  but  all  the  residents  living  near  the  Village  Green.  No  exact  date  of 
construction  of  the  Cooler  was  available,  however  it  is  presumed  that  it  was  built  after  the 
craftshop  was  built  in  1913;  the  first  ice  cream  parlor  was  reportedly  located  in  the 
craftshop.  Sadly,  the  Cooler  is  no  longer  standing,  and  has  been  replaced  with  a  parking 

Little  Arden 

One  of  the  most  notable  and  progressive  residential  projects  in  Arden  was  the 
establishment  of  Little  Arden,  a  grouping  of  small  cottages  built  in  close  proximity  to  the 
Craftshop.  Built  on  the  triangular  parcel  of  land  bounded  by  the  Stile  Path,  Millers  Road 
and  Lower  Lane,  Little  Arden  was  an  attempt  at  low  cost  housing,  intended  to  attract 
master  craftsmen  to  Arden  (see  Appendix  E  for  map).  This  small  cluster  of  housing 
consisted  of  four  very  small  artisans'  cottages  grouped  together  to  minimize  land  rents 
and  maximize  neighborly  security.  Today,  these  homes  (1802-1806  Millers  Road  and 
2212  The  Sweep)  have  been  greatly  altered,  with  the  exception  of  Rest  Harrow,  the  small 
cottage  at  1806  Millers  Road,  which  has  retained  its  original  shape  and  much  of  its  detail. 


Rest  Harrow,  oriented  to  the  south,  has  a  saltbox  configuration,  the  back  roof  extending 
beyond  the  ground  floor  of  the  house  (Plate  72).  The  projecting  vestibule  and  small 
central  dormer  marked  the  front  of  the  house.  The  vestibule,  with  its  stone  and  brick 
detail  added  color  to  the  house.  The  decoratively  swirled  pattern  of  the  plaster  under  the 
eaves  and  along  the  roof  of  the  vestibule  also  contributed  to  the  character  of  this  small 
dwelling.  Casement  windows  of  various  sizes  allowed  light  and  air  into  the  structure. 

Continued  Development  of  Arden 

Due  to  limited  documentation  from  the  years  between  1914  and  1916,  it  is  difficult  to 
trace  exactly  what  occurred  during  this  period  in  terms  of  building  activity.  It  was 
reported  that  Arden  had  a  total  of  roughly  one  hundred  dwellings  by  October  1915, 
indicating  that  over  sixty  homes  had  been  built  in  the  six-year  period  between  1909  and 

The  one  area  in  which  Arden  most  definitely  gained  ground  during  the  period  from  1912 
to  1916  was  in  the  national  arena.  Newspapers  from  all  over  the  country  were  reporting 
on  the  activities  and  growth  of  Arden,  thus  establishing  the  town's  national  reputation.!^ 
Brought  into  the  national  limelight  by  Upton  Sinclair's  two-year  residence,  Arden 
managed  to  sustain  its  national  appeal  long  after  Sinclair  left  in  1912.  In  this  national 
coverage,  not  only  was  Arden  earning  recognition  as  a  Single  Tax  community  but,  due  to 
the  establishment  of  the  craftshop,  it  was  also  earning  a  name  for  itself  as  a  leading 
craftsman  village.  Arden's  newly  completed  craftshop  and  the  community's  variety  of 
handicrafts  were  the  subject  of  a  1914  article  in  the  New  York  Tribune.  This  article, 

l^^Joseph  Dana  MUler,  Single  Tax  Year  Book  (NY:  Single  Tax  Review  Publishing  Co.,  1917). 
140 Arden  Papers,  Oversize  Folder  #8  (1912)  and  #10  (1914),  [HSD]. 


entitled  "Restoring  to  the  Home  its  Individuality,"  heralded  Arden  for  successfully 
resurrecting  the  medieval  craftsman  tradition  --  "to  bring  once  more  within  the  reach  of 
all  the  beautiful,  artistic  products  which  the  master  workmen  of  old  might  have  made."!"*! 

Documentation  suggests  that  Will  Price's  involvement  in  the  buildings  of  Arden  may 
have  waned  somewhat  after  1913.  However,  his  contributions  to  the  Arden  Leaves  and 
his  participation  in  Arden  plays  continued  until  his  death  in  1916,  showing  that  even 
though  his  participation  in  the  physical  development  of  Arden  may  have  slowed,  he 
continued  to  play  an  active  role  in  the  spiritual  development  of  the  community  through 
his  writings  and  his  inspirational  ideals.  While  it  is  Frank  Stephens  who  is  most 
remembered  among  Ardenites  today,  the  legend  of  Will  Price  also  manages  to  live  on 
through  the  architecture.  Nothing  more  clearly  indicates  Price's  enduring  spirit  and 
commitment  to  Arden  than  his  charming  and  unassuming  buildings  that  continue  to  grace 
Arden  today. 

^■^l  "Restoring  to  the  Home  its  Individuality,"  New  York  Tribune,  September  27,  1914. 



William  Price  once  stated  that  "As  new  conditions  arise,  as  civilizations  wax  and  wane, 
architecture  keeps  the  records."  i'^^  Arden  proves  the  validity  of  this  statement,  for  it  is 
the  architecture  and  the  plan  of  Arden  that  recount  the  stories  of  the  community's 
founding  and  its  gradual  development.  Through  the  language  of  architecture,  the  houses 
and  buildings  of  Arden  successfully  explain  the  social  objectives  of  the  founders,  the 
obstacles  facing  the  founders  in  their  attempts  to  achieve  these  goals,  and  the  impact  that 
these  obstacles  had  in  shaping  the  community. 

As  this  examination  of  Arden' s  architecture  and  planning  illustrates,  the  general  form  of 
the  community  and  the  character  of  its  structures  slowly  evolved,  mirroring  the 
deliberate,  gradual  transformation  of  Arden  from  a  humble  summer  village  to  a  popular 
year-round  community.  The  founders  of  Arden,  Frank  Stephens  and  Will  Price,  began  by 
establishing  the  essential  elements  of  the  community  in  order  to  generate  development 
momentum.  Arden's  first  buildings  indicate  this  strategy.  The  first  building  campaign 
gave  rise  to  the  Homestead,  the  Arden  Inn,  the  Red  House  and  a  number  of  dwellings. 
Stephens  broke  ground  at  Arden  in  1900  witii  his  Homestead,  an  heroic,  flag-flying 
effort,  showing  his  determination  to  get  Arden  underway.  The  Arden  Inn  was  important 
because  it  provided  accomodations,  thus  helping  to  facilitate  visits  to  Arden  and  lure  new 
residents.  The  Red  House  provided  Arden  with  its  first  artisan  space  and  community 

I'^^price,  "DecorativeTreatmentof  Plaster  Walls,"  The  Brickbuilder,  Vol.  20,  1911,  181-90. 


With  the  exception  of  these  buildings,  growth  in  Arden  during  its  first  eight  years  was 
only  moderate,  signifying  the  reluctance  among  Arden's  carefree  sunmier  visitors  to 
wholeheartedly  commit  to  the  community  by  building  permanent  dwellings.  Thus,  tents 
remained  the  norm.  There  is  no  doubt  that  this  reluctance  was  due  to  a  general  feeling  of 
uncertainty  about  Arden's  progressive  Single  Tax  land  ownership  system.    As  the 
architecture  illustrates,  however,  this  reluctancy  began  to  dissipate  after  1908. 

The  founding  of  the  Arden  Club  in  1908,  the  gift  of  Joseph  Pels  in  1909,  and  no  doubt 
Upton  Sinclair's  presence  in  Arden  from  1910  to  1912  were  among  the  many  factors  that 
boosted  Arden's  popularity  and  led  to  the  surge  in  building  activity  starting  in  1909.  In 
terms  of  the  physical  elements  of  Arden,  this  second  phase  of  development  was 
characterized  by  a  more  sophisticated  architecture,  a  more  rational  physical  plan,  and  a 
more  organized  system  of  land  assessments,  all  helping  to  further  increase  interest  in 
Arden.  The  tents  and  the  simple,  single-story  bungalows  typical  of  Arden's  early  days 
gave  way  to  more  refined,  more  permanent  structures.  The  construction  during  this 
development  phase  of  the  Gild  Hall  and  the  Craf tshop  was  important  in  demonstrating  the 
determination  and  perseverance  of  Stephens  and  Price  to  see  their  goals  through,  for  these 
buildings  were  integral  to  the  social  objectives  of  the  community,  providing  places  for 
social  interaction  and  artistic  cooperation.  The  completion  of  these  community  buildings 
points  to  the  fact  that  despite  the  rather  slow  start  to  Arden  between  1903  and  1908,  the 
goals  of  Price  and  Stephens  remained  firmly  rooted. 

Not  only  is  the  architecture  of  Arden  important  in  telling  the  history  of  Arden  and  its 
Utopian  goals,  but  it  is  also  significant  as  a  record  of  sentiments  within  American  society 
at  the  turn  of  the  century  when  people  were  struggling  with  the  consequences  of 


nineteenth  century  industrialization.    The  homes  of  Arden  demonstrate  the  increasing 
interest  among  Americans  to  seek  alternative  living  situations  in  rural  areas;  to  live  more 
simply;  to  reject  the  Victorian  excesses  of  the  post-Civil  War  period;  to  alleviate 
economic  disparity  within  American  society;  and  to  live  in  cooperative  harmony. 

In  addition  to  creating  a  physical  record  of  the  community's  history,  the  architecture 
encapsulates  the  spirit  of  Arden  -  the  community  vitality  and  the  artistic  creativity.  It  is 
this  lively  community  spirit  of  Arden,  which  Price  and  Stephens  so  successfully 
established  through  the  architecture  and  the  plan,  that  is  the  glue  keeping  Arden  alive 
today.  This  community  spirit  and  camaraderie,  still  evident  in  the  weekly  Wednesday 
folk  dances,  Saturday  community  dinners,  frequent  gild  meetings,  theatrical 
performances,  and  the  numerous  other  ongoing  activities,  are  what  sustain  the  gregarious, 
interactive  behavior  of  Arden' s  residents  that  was  intended  from  the  start. 

This  study  demonstrates  that  the  architecture  and  the  physical  plan  of  Arden  should  be 
highlighted  and  preserved,  for  they  hold  all  of  the  community's  secrets.    They  are  not 
only  tangible  reminders  of  the  past,  but  influences  on  future  behavior  as  well.  The  stories 
of  Arden  cannot  be  carried  on  forever  by  word  of  mouth  for  they  will  lose  their  accuracy. 
It  is  hoped  that  this  document  will  give  Ardenites  a  firmer  understanding  of  the  goals  of 
Price  and  Stephens  and  an  awareness  that  the  architecture,  being  a  physical  reflection  of 
these  goals,  must  be  respectfully  preserved  in  order  to  successfully  carry  on  Arden' s 
founding  principles. 



Plate  1-  Henry  George.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 


Plate  2.  Frank  Stephens.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 

Plate  3.  Waiiam  L.  Price  at  Drafting  Board.  Courtesy  George  Thomas. 


Plate  4.  "Tower  House"  --  Wayne,  Pennsylvania.  Courtesy  George  Thomas. 

Plate  5.  Woodmont  Cowrtei}'  George  Thomas. 


Plated.  W.L,  Price  House  -  6334  Sherwood  Road,  Overbrook,  PA.  Courtesy  George  Thomas. 

Plate  7.  "Kelty"  --  W.L.  Price  House  --  Overbrook,  PA.  BuUt  1899.  Courtesy  George  Thomas. 


Plate  8.  Alice  Barber  Stephens  Residence.  Rose  Valley,  Pennsylvania  Courtesy  George  Thomas. 

Plate  9.  Hawley  McLanahan  Residence.  Rose  Valley,  Pennsylvania  Courtesy  George  Thomas. 



i-rice   and  Kc-^;    .--.ose 
Hose  Valley,    Pa.    1910  -   19: 

Vcliey   irrrorovenen-   Co"?any   ^.oases, 
11.   House"  during  ccnstructior.. 

Plate  10.    Improvement  Houses.  Rose  Valley,  PA  -  Under  Construction.  Courtesy  George  Thomas. 

Plate  11.  Improvement  Houses.  Rose  Valley,  PA  --  Completed.  Courtesy  George  Thomas. 


s  <nn 

.       D 

Plate  12.  Atlas  of  the  State  of  Delaware,  Philadelphia:  Pomeroy  &  Beers,  1868,  (HSD).  Shows  Grubb's 
Comer,  Odd  Fellow  Hall  and  the  J.S.  Derrickson  Fann.  Note  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad  has  not  yet 
been  laid.  Courtesy  Historical  Society  of  Delaware. 


Plate  13.  Atlas  of  New  Castle  County  Delaware,  Philadelphia:  D.G.  Beers,  1893.  This  map,  drawn  nine 
years  before  Arden  was  established,  indicates  that  there  was  little  growth  or  development  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  Derrickson  Farm  between  1868  and  1893.  There  appear  to  be  few  additions  to  the  region  in  terms  of 
farmhouses,  and  the  names  of  the  principal  landowners  also  remained  unchanged.  The  one  notable  change, 
however,  is  that  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  has  been  laid  by  this  time.  Courtesy  Historical  Society  of 



Plate  14.  Derrickson  Bam.  Southeast  Facade.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 

Plate  15.  United  States  Geological  Survey  Map,  "Marcus  Hook,  PA  -  DE  -  NJ,"  1948. 


Plate  16.  Arden  Plan,  1910.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 


Plate  17.  View  of  Naaman's  Creek.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 

Plate  18.  View  of  Naaman's  Creek.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumact 


Plate  19.  Pageant  outside  the  Arden  Inn.  Date  of  photograph  unknown.  Courtesy  Peg  AumacL 

Plate  20.  Tennis  along  the  Village  Green.  Date  of  photograph  c.1904.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Plate  21.  "Jumping  Rope."  Date  of  photograph  unknown.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Camp  meeting  in  progress.  From  Gorham,  Camp  Meeting  Manual. 

Plate  22.  Camp  Meeting.  Reprmttd  from  John  Sttigoe's  Common  Landscape  of  America,  1580-1845 
(New  Haven,  CT:  Yale  University  Press,  1982),  233. 


Plate  23.  Arden  Entrance  Stile.    Photograph  by  author,  1993. 

Plate  24.  Field  Theater.  Photo  taken  c. 1909.  Arden" s  first  theater.  From  the  start,  drama  played  a  major 
role  in  life  at  Arden  and  continues  to  do  so  today.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Plate  25.  Bide-A-Wee  Interior.  View  illustrates  the  use  of  high  wainscoUng,  exposed  timber  beams  and 
rough  stone  fireplace.  The  table  and  chairs  are  Arden-produced.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 

Plate  26.  Arden  Tent.  Courtesy  Peg  Awnack. 


Plate  27.  Homestead.  View  of  the  Homestead  as  originally  built.  Photograph  taken  c.  1902-9.  Courtesy 
Peg  Aumack. 

Plate  28.  Homestead.  Photograph  by  author,  1993. 


Plate  29.  Arden  Inn.  Rear  view  from  the  south.  Date  of  photograph  unknown.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 

Plate  30.  Red  House.  Built  in  1901  on  a  prominent  site  along  the  edge  of  the  Village  Green  at  the  comer 
of  Cherry  Lane  and  Miller's  Lane.  Photograph  shows  Red  House  to  the  far  right  with  the  rest  of  Cherry 
Lane  in  the  background.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Plate  31.  Red  House.  Side  view  looking  towards  the  Village  Green.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 

Plate  32.  Red  House  after  Craftshop  was  added  in  1913.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 


Plate  33.  The  Monastery.  This  small  cabin  was  built  in  1908  for  Frank  Stephens'  son,  Don,  as  his 
bachelor's  pad.  Photograph  taken  c.  1908.  Courtesy  Don  Holcomb. 


Plate  34.  Monk  Window  in  the  Monastery.  This  stained  glass  Monk  Plate,  crafted  for  Don  Stephens  by 
an  Arden  resident,  is  incorporated  into  one  of  the  leaded  glass  windows  of  The  Monastery.  Photograph  by 
author,  1992. 


Plate  35.  Admiral  BenBow.    Illustrates  the  use  of  pergolas  and  fences  in  Arden.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack 

Plate  36.  First  Cabin.  This  building  was  one  of  a  series  of  cabins  designed  during  Arden' s  first  phase  of 
buUding.  It  is  a  very  simple  dweUing,  built  of  plywood  with  a  log  veneer.  The  cabin  has  no  chimney. 
Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Plate  37.  The  Brambles.  Original  form.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 

Plate  38.  Arden  Sawmill.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 


Plate  39.  Second  Homestead.  Under  construction  in  1909.  This  view  shows  the  hollow  tile  used  in  the 
construction  of  this  dwelling.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 

Plate  40.  Second  Homestead.  View  of  the  Second  Homestead  ciyuv  showing  the  proximity  of  the 
dwelling  to  the  Field  Theater  which  appears  in  the  foreground.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Plate  41.  Second  Homestead.  First  floor  interior;  features  a  central  fireplace,  built-in  comer  cabinet  with 
leaded  window  doors  in  the  dining  area,  exposed  timber  joists,  and  high  wainscoting  throughout. 
Photograph  by  the  author,  1993. 


Plate  42.  Second  Homestead.  Interior  view  of  one  of  the  studio  spaces  on  the  upper  floor  of  the  Second 
Homestead.  This  shot  iUustrates  the  way  Price  maximized  the  use  of  natural  light  in  his  interiors, 
parucularly  in  spaces  intended  as  art  studios,  by  orienting  the  house  towards  the  south.  Note  the  Arden 
Forge  fixture  hung  from  the  ceUing.  Photograph  by  the  author,  1993. 


Plate  43.  Second  Homestead.  Exterior  view  of  south  facade.  Photograph  by  the  author,  1993. 

Plate  44.  Friendly  Gables.  This  home  was  one  of  the  first  houses  to  be  built  after  Joseph  Pels  presented 
his  eift  of  S5.000  to  Arden  in  1909.  It  is  located  along  LitUe  Lane.  It  was  designed  by  William  Price  and 
modeled  after  the  Hetzel  House  in  Rose  Valley.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Plate  45.  Green  Gate.  North  facade.  Built  in  1909.  Designed  by  WiUiam  Price,  this  house  incorporated  a 
number  of  his  signature  details  including  the  rough  stone  chimney,  the  plaster  construction  and,  most 
notably,  the  decorative  tiles  embedded  in  the  exterior  plaster.  Photograph  by  author,  1993. 

Plate  46.  Green  Gate.  Photograph  by  the  author,  1993. 


Plate  47.  Green  Gate.  Interior  mural.  Photograph  by  author,  Spring  1992. 


Plate  48.  Green  Gate.  Interior  mural  detail.  Photograph  by  author,  Spring  1992. 

Plate  49.  Woolery's  Grocery  Store  and  Post  Office.  Built  in  1909.  Courtesy  of  Arden  Archives. 


Plate  50.  Foote  House.  "The  Willows."  1808  Harvey  Road.   Converted  from  the  original  Derrickson 
farmhouse  c.  1909.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 

Plate  5 1 .  Foote  House.  Photograph  by  author,  1993. 


Plate  52.  The  Lodge.  Southwest  view  of  The  Lodge,  early  photograph,  exact  date  of  photograph  uknown. 
This  house  was  built  for  Miss  Lucy  Darling  who  had  previously  been  residing  in  the  Red  House.  The 
Lodge,  designed  by  William  Price,  was  started  in  1910.  This  house,  like  the  Second  Homestead,  Rest 
Cottage,  and  Friendly  Gables,  was  constructed  of  hollow  tile  and  plaster.  But  unlike  the  other  structures  it 
is  symmetrical  with  a  broad  center  dormer  projecting  from  the  front  facade  and  a  chimney  at  both  the  east 
and  west  ends  of  the  house.  Courtesy  Don  Holcomb. 


Plate  53.  The  Lodge.  West  facade.  Photograph  by  author,  February  1993. 


Plate  54.  Rest  Cottage.  Under  construction,  1910.  This  view  of  the  southwest  comer  of  the  house  shows 
the  hollow  tile  construction  method  utilized  by  Price.  This  dwelUng  was  designed  by  WiUiam  Price  and 
constructed  following  Joseph  Pels'  plea  for  more  permanent  architecture  to  be  built  in  Arden.  This  house 
was  built  of  hollow  tile  and  plaster  with  a  rough  stone  foundation.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 



Plate  55.  Rest  Cottage  under  construction,  1910.  This  photograph  of  the  west  facade  of  the  house  shows 
the  wood  frame  construction  on  the  upper  floors  of  the  house.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 

Plate  56.  Rest  Cottage.  Photograph  by  author,  1992. 


Plate  57.  Jungalow.  Early  view  of  Upton  Sinclair's  home  after  its  construcUon  in  1910.  Courtesy  Don 

Plate  58.    Katherine  Ross  Bungalow.  Exterior  from  northwest.  Built  in  191 1.  Photograph  by  author, 


Plate  59.  Katherine  Ross  Bungalow.  Interior  view  Ulustrates  the  use  of  unpainted  woodwork  and  leaded 
glass  windows.   Photograph  by  author,  1992. 


Plate  60.  The  Brambles.  As  it  was  being  expanded  by  Frank  B.  Downs  in  191 1.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 

Plate  61.  The  Brambles  ('•Downs  Cottage").  Post-expansion.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Plate  62.  The  Brambles  ("Downs  Cottage").  Photograph  by  author,  1992. 


Plate  63.  Chestnut  Burr.  BuUt  after  1909  for  the  Shaw  family,  2108  Sherwood  Road.  Courtesy  Peg 


Plate  64.  Camp  Beulah.  Built  after  1909  for  the  Hambly  family.  Located  at  2107  Hillside  on  the 
Sherwood  side  of  Arden.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumack. 


Plate  65.    Derrickson  Barn  before  conversion  to  Gild  Hall  in  1909.  Courtesy  Don  Holcomb. 

Plate  66.  Derrickson  Bam  after  conversion  to  Gild  Hall  in  1909.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 


Plate  67.  Craftshop.  Located  adjacent  to  the  Red  House  (the  building  in  the  foreground)  at  the  comer  of 
Cherry  Lane  and  Millers  Lane.  The  Craftshop  was  constructed  in  1913.  Courtesy  Peg  AumacL 

Plate  68.  Craftshop.  Photograph  by  author,  1993. 


n p  n 

Plate  69.  Work  produced  by  the  Arden  Forge.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 

Plate  70.  Arden  Church.  Original  pencil  sketch  by  William  L.Price  1910.  Courtesy  Arden  Archives. 


Plate  71.  The  Cooler.  Built  as  an  ice  cream  parlor.  Courtesy  Peg  Aumact 


Plate  72.  Rest  Harrow.  This  dwelling  was  built  as  part  of  Little  Arden,  a  grouping  of  small  cottages 
intended  to  attract  master  craftsmen  to  Arden.  These  small  dwellings  were  built  along  the  Stile  Path 
leading  from  the  entrance  stile  to  the  Red  House.  Photograph  by  author,  1993. 




Arden  Timeline 


Arden  Timeline 

1 879  Henry  George  publishes  Progress  and  Poverty 

1890  William  Morris  publishes  News  From  Nowhere.  First  printed  in  The 


1881  Frank  Stephens  joins  the  Philadelphia  Sketch  Club  where  he  was  a  member  until 

his  death  in  1935. i'*3 

1895         Frank  Stephens  and  group  of  others  called  the  "Jailhouse  Gang"  came  to  Delaware 
to  sell  the  state  on  the  Single  Tax  teachings  of  Henry  George. l'^ 

June  12,         1900  162  acres  sold  by  the  Derrickson  family  to  George  [Frank]  Stephens  for 

$9,000;  1^5  $2,500  was  paid  in  cash  and  the  remaining  $6,500  was  a  mortgage  later 
taken  up  by  Joseph  Pels. 

Buildings  existing  on  the  farm  property  at  the  time  of  purchase:  ^^^ 

•  farmhouse  -  located  on  west  side  of  Grubb  Road.  This  structure  was  later 
converted  by  into  a  house  called  "The  Willows." 

•  Ice  House  -  located  at  the  bottom  of  Walnut  Lane  in  the  Arden  woods. 
Built  prior  to  the  time  when  Arden's  plan  was  conceived,  the  ice  house  is  the 
only  structure  built  within  the  woodlands,  the  area  that  in  the  plan  was 
supposed  to  remain  open  and  undeveloped.  The  structure  was  located  near 
the  river  due  to  its  original  function  as  an  icehouse.  It  has  always  been  held 
by  the  Renzetd  family.  It  was  originally  the  home  of  Marcus  Aurelius 
Renzetti,  an  artist  who  taught  in  Philadelphia  at  what  is  now  the  Art  School 
of  Philadelphia.  The  house  is  now  being  lived  in  by  the  blacksmith  Pete 

•  Tool  and  Wagon  Shed  --  Converted  into  a  house  for  Hamilton  "Buzz"  Ware 
c.  1919  (the  year  Joan  Colgan,  his  daughter,  was  bom).  The  house  was 
commonly  refeired  to  as  "The  Barnacle."  Originally,  it  retained  early 
features  of  this  bam  building  such  as  the  gambrel  roof,  big  bam  door,  and 
hay  mow  (a  hay  storage  area  on  the  second  floor),  but  it  has  been  changed 
many  times  over  the  years,  it  is  now  being  lived  in  by  Joan  Colgan's  son 
Tim  Colgan. 

•  Bam  --  Converted  into  the  GUd  Hall  in  1909-10. 
1900         Original  Homestead  -  built  by  Frank  Stephens. 

^^•'Philadelphia  Sketch  Club  Membership  Book,  Archives  of  American  Art  Microfilm  #3666.  Charles  H.  Stephens 

was  the  president  of  the  Sketch  Club  from  1913  to  1916. 

■'''^Frank  Stephens  Autobiography. 

I'^^Register  of  Deeds,  Wihnington,  DE.  Deed  Book  G17,  345.  June  12,  1900. 

^^"Discussion  with  Joan  Ware  Colgan,  December  3,  1992 


Oct.  10,         1901  The  162  acres  conveyed  to  the  three  trustees:^^'  Frank  Stephens 

William  Price 
Frank  Martin 

1901  Price  established  Rose  Valley,  PA 

[1902        William  Price  becomes  a  member  of  the  Philadelphia  Sketch  Club  where  he  was  a 
member  off  and  on  until  his  death  in  1916.]^'^^ 

July  25,         1902  First  issue  ofArden  Advocate^^^ 

-  bridge  with  railing  is  reportedly  being  built  over  Naaman's  Creek 

Buildings  in  place  by  July  1902: 

•  The  Brambles  (built  by  George  Leach  and  Harry  Vandever,  aided  by 
Frank  Stephens)  -  being  lived  in  by  the  Louis  Cohen  family  of 
Philadelphia  (i.e.Mother  Bloor) 

•  Saints  Rest  -  Frank  Martin's  house  at  end  of  St.  Martin's  Lane 

•  The  Red  House  -  being  lived  in  by  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Zimmerman  and  Miss 
Ray  Zimmerman 

•  Admiral  Benbow  ~  being  lived  in  by  Miss  Margaret  Stephens,  Roger 
Stephens,  Donald  Stephens,  Gertrude  Martin,  Euphemia  and  Carrie  Martin, 
Elizabeth  Harris,  Winthrop  Smith,  Winthrop  Smith,  Jr. 

•  Arden  Inn 

•  The  Homestead 

•  The  cellar  of  the  Harry  Vandever  house  is  dug 

1905  First  winter  spent  in  Arden;  Mother  Bloor  spent  it  at  The  Brambles. 

1906  Upton  Sinclair  pubUshed  The  Jungle.  ^^^ 

[1908-10    Gustav  Stickley  built  Craftsman  Farms  in  Morris  Plains,  NJ.  Stickley  purchased 
farm  property  where  he  sought  to  establish  a  fann  school  for  boys.  Only  four 
structures  were  actually  built  --  the  main  house,  two  cottages  (originally  planned 
for  craftsmen),  and  a  workshop.  Due  to  financial  difficulties,  the  plans  for  his  farm 
school  were  put  on  hold.  Stickley  and  his  family  ended  up  living  there, 
coimnuting  into  NYC  to  his  showroom,  until  1915  when  he  filed  for 
bankruptcy]  ^^^ 

January  31,    1908         Deed  of  Trust  amended  to  give  Arden  leaseholders  rights  that  were  not  established 
in  the  original  Deed  of  Trust.  This  supposedly  helped  to  attract  people  to  Arden 
who  were  initially  reluctant  to  join  the  new  colony  due  to  the  fact  that  leaseholders 
were  given  so  few  rights.^^^ 

I'^'^Register  of  Deeds,  Wilmington,  DE.  Deed  Book  V18,  36,  October  17,  1901. 

1  ^Philadelphia  Sketch  Club  Membership  Book,  Archives  of  American  Art  Microfilm  #3666. 

^^^ Arden  Advocate,  July  25,  1902. 

^^^Sinclair,  The  Jungle. 

l^^Pamphlet  on  Craftsman  Farms,  Craftsman  Farms  Foun.  Inc.,  1991.  Acquired  at  Craftsman  Farms,  Parsippany-Troy 

Hills,  NJ. 

1^2"Arden  Book,"  6. 


July  16,  1908 

Oct.  23,  1908 

November  1908 

January  1909 

February        1909 

March  1909 

Arden  Club  founded  -  its  purpose  was  to  promote  the  social  and  educational 
interests  of  Arden  ^^^ 

First  issue  of  Arden  Club  Talk 

-  "Monastery"  (Don  Stephens'  bachelor's  pad)  nearing  completion ^^^ 

Model  done  for  the  proposed  clubhouse  ^^^ 

Joseph  Fels  cleared  up  an  additional  35  acres  from  his  mortgage  to  make 
settlement  possible  on  the  Sherwood  side  of  Arden. ^^^ 

Arden  Club  Talk  reports  that  there  are  36  dwellings  constructed  in  Arden,  not 
including  the  tents.  ^^^ 

Joseph  Fels  gives  $5,000  to  Arden.^^^    This  money  set  into  motion  a  building 
boom  in  Arden  which  attempted  to  construct  buildings  of  a  more  permanent  nature 
so  as  to  attract  more  year-round  dwellers  to  Arden,  to  encourage  its  use  as  a  year- 
round  community  instead  of  merely  a  summer  community.  We  expect  that  this  is 
when  Will  Price  was  called  into  design  some  of  the  buildings.  Interestingly,  most 
of  these  buildings  were  centered  around  the  Village  Green.  Buildings  thought  to 
be  a  result  of  this  building  boom  include  the  following:  ^^^ 

•  Green  Gate  ~  the  Lulu  Clark  House 
»  The  Lodge 

» The  Second  Homestead 

*  Rest  Cottage 

Decision  made  to  convert  the  existing  45'  square  Derrickson  bam  to  a  clubhouse 
rather  than  building  the  new  structure  proposed  by  Don  and  Frank  Stephens  in 
Nov.  1908;  the  conversion,  designed  by  Price  was  to  cost  $2,700.^^^ 

-  Arden  Club  Talk  reports  that  Joseph  Fels  "left,  subject  to  Will  Price's  order, 
several  thousand  dollars  to  build  at  once  four  or  five  cottages  from  that  master 
craftsman's  designs:  the  one  stipulation  was  that  they  should  be  permanent  and 
artistic  in  character,  with  stone  foundations  and  cellars,  hollow  brick  and  concrete 
walls  and  at)ove  all,  literally,  the  red  tiled  roofs  so  beautiful  in  the  scenery  of 
England  and  the  Netherlands." ^^^ 

-  3  of  these  are  apparently  underway: 

•  Steinlein's  house  -  modeled  after  the  Hetzel's  home  in  Rose  Valley; 
basement  to  be  used  as  printing  shop 

•  no  specifics  were  mentioned  on  the  other  two  houses  under 

^^^Arden  Club  Talk,  October  23, 1908. 



^^^ Arden  Club  Talk.  November  28,  1908. 

^^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  February  1909. 

^^'^ Arden  Club  Talk,  January  1909. 

'■^"Letter  dated  Feb  4,  1909  from  Frank  Stephens  to  his  son  Don. 

l-'^Discussion  with  Joan  Ware  Colgan,  December  3,  1992 

^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  March/AprU  1909. 




Mar./April     1909 
May  1909 

August  1,       1909 

November     1909 


December      1909 

January  1910 

June  25,         1910 

-  the  other  buildings  to  be  designed  by  Price  were  mentioned  as  the  Club  House 
and  the  Village  Church;  but  the  people  of  Arden  act  on  John  Ruskin's  advice  to 
"build  the  little  roofs  before  the  big  ones." 

The  Sherwood  side  of  Arden  was  just  beginning  to  be  developed.  Accounts 
reports  that  development  in  Arden  was  booming  at  this  time.^^^ 

It  was  proposed  that  an  Arden  Church  be  built.  "Our  need  of  a  village  church  at 
Arden  is  not  as  a  place  to  worship  in,  seeing  that  we  have  the  sky  overhead  and  the 
trees  around  us  at  all  times,  but  that  we  may  have  a  belfry  in  which  to  hang  the 
chimes  we  will  some  day  play  on  Chrishnas  Eve  and  Sabbath  evenings,  and  have 
also  a  place  for  a  great  pipe  organ;  and  last  of  all,  for  the  ashes  of  our  dead."*^^ 

Work  began  on  establishing  a  formal  set  of  pedestrian  paths  through  Arden.  ^^ 

Every  piece  of  Arden  land  had  a  leaseholder  and  there  was  a  waiting  list.^^^ 

Frank  Martin  resigns  as  trustee;  Charles  Shandrew  takes  his  place. 

Second  Homestead  built 

Total  of  1 15  leaseholders  and  50  dwellings;  150  people  live  in  Arden  in  summer 
and  50  in  winter. 

The  Red  House  became  the  location  of  Arden' s  first  school  house,  to  serve  as  the 
educational  facility  for  the  rapidly  increasing  number  of  children  residing  at  Arden 
through  the  winter. '^^ 

Upton  Sinclair  wrote  from  Fairhope,  AL  inquiring  about  the  community  of  Arden. 
It  is  presumed  that  the  information  he  received  in  response  to  this  letter  resulted  in 
his  moving  to  Arden  later  that  year.^^^ 

Floor-Laying  Bee  where  all  members  of  the  community  were  invited  to  help  lay 
the  floors  of  the  new  Gild  Hall.  Newspaper  article  entitled  "Many  Ardenites  Are 
Sore  Today"  reports  on  the  floor-laying  and  also  comments  on  the  conmiunity  of 
Arden.  168 


•  still  a  limited  number  of  dwelUngs  (75  total)  constructed  so  many  people  are 
living  in  tents  at  this  time;  of  the  dwellings  that  do  exist  by  this  time  are  Frank 
Stephens'  Homestead  and  the  home  of  Fred  Steinlein.  Scott  Nearing,  the  Wharton 
professor  and  Upton  Sinclair  are  reportedly  living  in  tents. 

•  there  is  a  lack  of  noise;  peace  and  tranquility  prevail. 

162  Ibid. 

^^^ Arden  Club  Talk,  May  1909. 


^^^Arden  Club  Talk,  August  1909. 

'^^^ Arden  Leaves,  January  1911. 

l°^Letter  from  Upton  Sinclair  dated  January  1910.  The  letter,  sent  from  Fairhope,  AL,  asked  for  information  about 


168"Many  Ardenites  are  Sore  Today,"  Wilmington  Morning  News,  June  27,  1910.  Arden  Scrapbook,  1910. 


July  29,         1910 

November     1910 

An  article  appears  in  the  Philadelphia  Bulletin  highlighting  Arden.  Its  tone  is  that 
of  an  advertisement,  attempting  to  lure  Philadelphians  to  Arden.  Interestingly,  the 
article  makes  a  point  of  explaining  that  Arden  is  notyM^r  a  summer  community. 
"Many  of  the  houses  that  occupy  the  lots  are  substantially  built  and  are  intended 
for  permanent  use,  while  others  are  of  the  bungalow  type  intended  for  summer  use 
only."  169 

Other  Houses/Buildings  under  construction:  ^^^ 

•  Ware  --  "The  Barnacle" 

•  Lightbown  --  "Cosy  Comer" 

•  Upton  Sinclair's  "Jungalow" 

•  Miss  Myers 

•  Harvey  Train  Station 

Houses  already  built  by  November  1910:  ^^^ 

•  Tevis 

•  Harrison 

•  Spicer 

•  Clement  House 

•  Green  Gate  --  Lulu  Clark  House 

•  Foote  House  -  The  Willows 

•  Cherry  Lodge 

•  Clement  House 

•  Lone  Pine 

•  Nusser  House 

•  Roserie 

November     1910 

December     1910 

February        1911 

The  construction  of  the  Village  Church  is  discussed.  It  is  reported  that  James 
Habbert  has  been  blasting  the  chosen  site  for  stone  to  use  in  the  construction  of  the 
chiu^ch.  This  is  one  of  the  first  articles  included  in  the  Arden  Leaves  pertaining  to 
the  construction  of  the  church,  most  every  article  reports  the  progress  of  the  plans 
for  the  church,  and  the  extreme  need  for  contributions  by  village  members.  ^^^ 
The  cost  estimate  for  the  church  as  designed  by  Price  was  $5,000  (or  roughly 
$3,000  excluding  the  tower  and  spire). ^^^ 

Upton  Sinclair  moved  into  his  new  home,  known  as  the  "Jungalow,"  located  on  the 
Village  Green.  l'^4  Hg  uyg^j  ttjej-e  until  1911. 

Electric  lights  available  in  Arden. 

House  for  Will  Ross  under  construction  on  Little  Lane.^^^ 

169r;,e  Philadelphia  Bulletin,  July  29,  1910. 

^'^Arden  Leaves,  November  1910. 

1 '^Ibid.  These  houses  made  up  the  "winter  colony"  of  Arden.  All  of  these  houses  were  being  lived  in  during  the 

winter  of  1910. 




'■'^ Arden  Leaves,  December  1910. 
'■     Arden  Leaves,  February  1911. 


March  1911 

April  1911 



September     1911 

May  1912 

Single  Tax  colony  in  Halidon,  Maine  was  then  underway.  WL  Price,  F.  Stephens 
and  Fiske  Warren  were  the  trustees.  ^^^ 

Friendly  Gables  is  finished  by  this  time. 

The  Lodge  was  finished  by  this  time  and  moved  into  by  Miss  Darling.^^^ 

Raffeisen  GUd  established  to  lend  money  for  Arden  projects.  Of  the  five  Single 
Tax  communities  in  the  United  States  at  this  time,  Arden  was  the  first  to  have  a 
Raffeisen  GMP^ 

The  Spreading  Oak  was  finished  by  this  time.  It  contained  16  bedrooms  and  a 
large  porch.  It  offered  rooms  for  rent.  Unlike  the  Arden  Inn,  the  Spreading  Oak 
(named  for  the  large  oak  tree  off  the  porch)  did  not  offer  meals.^'^ 

A  feature  article  in  the  Arden  Leaves  discusses  the  building  of  the  Arden  Church. 
In  this  article,  Frank  Stephens  tries  to  convince  his  readers  of  the  worthiness  of  the 
church  so  that  they  might  contribute  to  the  cause.  Stephens  knew  the  realities  of 
building  the  church,  understanding  that  it  would  take  a  considerable  amount  of 
financial  support  fi'om  the  community  members.  He  explains  that  the  church  is  to 
be  built  on  a  quarter-acre  plot  "on  the  Sherwood  side,  at  the  comer  of  the  Meadow 
Green,  on  Grubb's  Lane,  opposite  where  the  Sweep  comes  into  it,  at  the  foot  of  the 
old  graveyard..."  ^^'^ 

The  design  of  the  church  -  a  spired,  square-towered  stone  church  ~  is  based  on  a 
thirteenth  century  English  church  at  Stoke  Poges.  Stephens  alludes  to  the  fact  that 
this  church  is  where  Gray  wrote  the  "Elegy."  The  literary  connection  no  doubt 
made  this  prototype  particularly  appropriate  for  Arden  according  to  Stephens  and 
to  Wilham  Price.  Stephens  writes  that  English  architect  Raymond  Unwin  went  to 
much  trouble  to  secure  drawings  of  this  church  for  Arden.^^^ 

80  Leaseholds  in  the  Woodlands  and  47  Leaseholds  in  Sherwood 

Will  Ross  Bungalow  under  construction.  It  is  located  at  the  northwest  comer  of 
Gmbb  and  Orleans.  Description  states  that  it  was  to  be  25'  X  42'  with  porches  on 
the  front  and  back.^^^ 

For  sale  at  this  time:^^^ 

•  Archer  N  Tevis  House 

•  Sarah  Moore  house 

•  Upton  Sinclair's  house 

^"^^ Arden  Leaves,  March  1911. 
'■''  Arden  Leaves,  April  1911. 
^'° Arden  Leaves,  September  1911. 
'^^ Arden  Leaves,  May/June  1911. 
^^'^ Arden  Leaves,  September  1912. 



Arden  Leaves,  May  1912. 



November     1912 
December      1912 

March  1913 





August  1913 

There  is  still  concern  that  Arden  is  still  lacking  enough  year-round  residences  to 
make  it  a  truly  viable  year-round  community.  ^^ 

The  fact  that  the  digging  and  the  laying  of  the  foundation  for  the  Village  Church 
began  without  securing  the  funds  necessary  to  carrying  out  the  construction  of  the 
entire  church,  speaks  to  the  determinism  of  the  people  of  Arden.  They  were 
dreamers.  They  were  not  going  to  let  money  get  in  their  way  of  fulfilling  their 
dream  for  a  church.  Consequently,  the  foundation  remains  as  a  testament  to  their 
determination,  as  unrealistic  as  it  may  have  been  in  the  case  of  the  church. 

Will  Price,  the  Gildmaster  of  the  Craftsmens'  Gild,  is  in  charge  of  the  village 
crafts.  Tht  is,  he  was  playing  an  active  role  in  not  only  the  promotion  of  the  crafts 
but  in  the  provision  of  adequate  facilities  for  the  crafts  such  as  a  printery  and  a 
craftshop.  In  March  1913,  Price  was  involved  in  preparing  the  drawings  for  the 
construction  of  the  craft  shop.  It  is  anticipated  that  construction  was  to  get  started 
in  April  1913.  Price  describes  his  plans  for  the  building  to  include  a  "sunny  room 
for  sewing  and  costume  work  and  on  the  upper  floor  a  studio  and  drafting  room 
with  north  light  and  at  least  a  couple  of  rooms  with  southern  exposure  for  some  of 
our  smaller  aafts."  Price  planned  to  put  this  new  building  directly  in  back  of  the 
existing  carpenter  shop.^^^ 

Gildmaster  Price  reports  that  the  concrete  foundation  for  the  craftshop  is  in  place 
and  the  adjacent  smithshop  has  been  enlarged.  ^^^ 

Gildmaster  Price  reports  that  the  joists  of  the  main  floor  are  in  place  and  work  is 
progressing  steadily.  Reportedly  the  joists  and  the  heavy  timbers  are  oak  and 
poplar  and  cut  from  the  Arden  woods.  The  timber  was  then  hewn  by  Lewis 
Palmer  and  Wheeler  Booth,  clearly  an  example  of  the  medieval  building  traditions 
being  sustained  in  some  of  the  construction  being  carried  out  in  Arden  at  this  time. 
Evidently,  the  craftsmen  in  Arden  took  great  pride  not  in  their  methods  as  well  as 
their  artistic  products.  ^^^ 

Price  reports  that  the  stone  walls  of  the  first  floor  are  completed  and  that  the 
second  floor  hewn  floor  joists  are  being  put  in  place.  F*rice  anticipates  that  the  rest 
of  the  building  will  be  framed  during  August  Price  mentions  the  various  uses  that 
will  be  housed  within  the  new  structure:  ^^^ 

•  a  bakery  run  by  Mrs.  Marcellus  in  the  western  half  of  the  basement 

•  woodworking  shop  on  the  main  floor,  connecting  to  the  already  existing 
carpenters  shop 

•  salesroom  in  the  southwest  comer  of  the  main  floor 

•  sewing  room  in  the  northwest  portion  of  the  main  floor.  Price  writes  that 
in  this  sewing  room  he  "hopes  that  some  designing  person  will  have  the 
courage  to  make  clothing  for  daily  use  which  will  distinguish  between 
draping  the  human  figure  and  reupholstering  it,  and  will  do  something  to 
put  out  of  fashion  the  black  derby  hats  and  colorless  remnants  of  starched 
shirts  with  superimposed  suspenders." 

•  the  SE  room  on  the  upper  floor  is  to  house  the  weaving  looms 

•  the  SW  comer  is  to  be  the  room  for  silver  metalwork 


Arden  Leaves,  November  1912. 
'^"^ Arden  Leaves,  March  1913. 


Arden  Leaves,  June  1913. 
^^"^ Arden  Leaves,  July  1913. 


Arden  Leaves,  August  1913. 


•  the  remaining  space  on  the  upper  floors  is  to  be  house  studios  --  small 
ones  for  individual  use,  and  a  larger  one  in  which  big  classes  can  be  held, 
"after  the  manner  of  those  which  made  Tuesday  nights  at  the  Academy  of 
Fine  Arts  so  interesting  in  former  days."  Stephens  is  obviously  thinking  of 
his  own  personal  experiences  at  the  Academy  when  he  is  planning  for  the 
arrangement  of  space  in  the  new  craftshop. 

1913  Charles  Shandrew  resigns  as  trustee;  Kitty  Ross  comes  on  board 

1915  Will  Price  writes  "Peace  Man  or  War  Man,"  a  plea  for  peace  -  written  during  WWI 

1916  Wm  Price  dies 

1922  Ardentown  established  on  the  former  Harvey  Farm  (97  acres)  and  the  Hanby  Farm 


1935  Frank  Stephens  dies  -  ashes  buried  below  Arden's  Field  Theater. 

1950         ArdenCToft  established  on  93  aaes  to  the  south  of  Arden. ^^"^ 
February        1973  Arden  added  to  the  National  Register  of  Historic  Places. 

^^^■•ArdenBook,"  10. 


Arden  Map,  1910 


Flan  Of 

A  ^  DBN      'Ds  L  A  WA  KEL 

ArdenMap,  1910 



Arden  Deed  of  Trust 

January  31, 1908 


Deed  of  Trust 

Amended  January  31,  1908 

And  whereas  the  said  conveyance  of  said  lands  was  made  upon  certain  trusts  which  it  is  desired  by  the 
parties  aforesaid  (Stephens,  Price,  Martin)  to  restate  and  amend  the  said  lands  are  hereby  declared  to  be 
held  by  the  said  William  L.  Price,  Frank  Martin  and  George  F.  [Frank]  Stephens,  upon  the  following  trusts 
and  upon  them  only  viz:  in  trust  to  lease  such  portions  of  said  land  as  may  seem  good  to  the  said  trustees 
and  their  successors,  to  such  persons  and  for  such  terms  as  they  the  said  trustees  shall  determine,  the  lease 
in  each  case  to  reserve,  as  rent,  the  full  rental  value  of  the  premises  demised  by  said  lease,  to  pay  all  State 
and  local  taxes  out  of  and  from  the  rents  received  so  far  as  these  suffice  to  suffer  all  persons  to  whom  all 
land  shall  be  leased  as  aforesaid,  who  constitute  a  community  so  long  as  they  continue  such  leases,  to  enjoy 
and  use  for  common  purposes  such  of  the  lands  which  are  the  subject  of  the  deed  as  the  trustees  aforesaid 
shall  not  have  demised  to  individuals  devoted  to  purposes  other  than  common:  to  apply  all  sums  of  money 
received  as  rents,  in  excess  of  the  amount  needed  for  the  purposes  of  paying  the  taxes,  to  such  common 
uses,  desired  by  a  majority  of  the  residents  as  in  the  judgment  of  the  trustees,  are  properly  public,  in  that 
they  cannot  be  left  to  individuals  without  giving  one  an  advantage  over  others;  and  in  further  trust  if  at  any 
time  in  the  judgement  of  a  majority  of  the  trustees  the  conununity  shall  not  warrant  its  continuance  to 
declare  the  dissolution  thereof,  and  thereupon  to  sell  the  land  aforesaid  and,  after  repaying  to  William  L. 
Price.  George  F.  Stephens  and  Joseph  Fels  the  amount  originally  advanced  by  them  for  the  purchase  of  the 
said  land  from  David  F.  Derrickson,  who  made  the  title  therefore  to  George  F.  Stephens  by  deed  dated  June 
12,  A.D.  1900,  and  recorded  in  the  Recorder's  office  at  Wilmington  in  the  State  of  Delaware  in  Deed 
Record  Book  G.,  Volume  18,  p.345,  etc.  to  devote  the  purchase  money  to  such  purpose  as  shall  be 
approved  by  said  trustees.  And  the  said  trustees  shall  have  power  subject  to  the  approval  of  a  majority  of 
the  residents  to  supply  all  vacancies  which  may  occur  in  their  number,  which  it  is  intended  shall  always  be 
and  continue  to  be  three;  it  being  expressly  hereby  provided  that  upon  all  questions  requiring  the  exercise  of 
disCTetion  on  the  part  of  the  trustees,  the  action  of  a  majority,  after  an  opportunity  has  been  given  to  all  to 
express  their  opinion,  shall  be  valid  and  binding  upon  all. 


Arden  Building  Names 


Building  Names  in  Arden 




Prig.  Owner/Resident 

Admiral  Benbow 


Arden  Inn 


The  Bamacle 



The  Bluebird  [orig.  The  Vista] 


The  Bower 

The  Brambles 


Camp  Beulah 


Cherry  Lodge 


The  Chestnut  Burr 


The  Chip 

The  Cooler 


Cosy  Comer 


Craft  Shop 


First  Homestead 


Friendly  Gables 


Gild  Hall 


The  Green  Gate 


The  Second  Homestead 


The  Hurlong  Camp 

Ka  Hale  O  Moi 

The  Little  Roosevelt 

post- 1909 

The  Lodge 


Mary  Bruce  Inn  (Jungalow) 


The  Monastery 


Osnok  (Saints  Rest) 


The  Owls  Nest 

pre- 1908 

Pig-n- Whistle 

The  Potterie 

post- 1909 

Red  House 


Rest  Cottage 


Rest  Harrow 


The  Roserie 


Single  Tax  Office 

The  Splinter 

The  Spreading  Oak 


The  Strawberry  Box 

The  Weaving  Shop 

The  WiUows 


The  Woodpile 

Woolery's  Store 


Millers  Rd  &  Woodland 

[Later  moved  to  Millers  &  Little  La.] 

2314  Cherry  Lane 

1704  Green  Lane 

2324  Cherry  Lane 

2320  Cherry  Lane 
1807  Green  Lane 
1905  Millers  Road 

2107  Hillside  Road 

2108  Sherwood  Road 

2104  MiUers  Road 
Millers  Rd  (next  to  Red  House) 
1709  Green  Lane 
1807  MiUers  Road 
2313  Woodland  Lane 
2205  Litde  Lane 
The  Highway 
2210  The  Sweep 
2311  Woodland  Lane 
2401  Woodland  Lane 

2100  Harvey  Road 

2105  Sherwood  Road 

2209  Milky  Way  (Milky  Way  &  Millers) 

2321  Woodland  Lane 
2319  Wahiut  Lane 

1907  Millers  Rd.  (St.  Martins  Lane) 
1801  Green  Lane 

2210  Lower  Lane 
1900  Sherwood  Road 

1807  Millers  Road 
2328  Cherry  Lane 
2212  The  Sweep 
Woodland  Lane 
1902  MiUers  Road 
Millers  Road 

2211  Lower  Lane 
2306  Wahiut  Lane 
1812  MiUers  Road 

1808  Harvey  Road 
HiUside  and  MiUers 
2210  Litfle  Lane 

Margaret  Stephens 


Hamilton  "Buzz' 

Don  Stephens 


Louis  Cohen  Family 
Hambly  Fanuly 

Shaw  Family 


WiUiam  Lightbown 


Frank  Stephens 

Fred  Steinlein 


Lulu  Clarke 

Frank  Stephens 

Lucy  Darling 
Upton  Sinclair 
Don  Stephens 
Frank  Martin 
WiUiam  Irwin 
Hazel  Stephens 
Edwin  S.  Potter 
Margaret  Stephens 

BuUt  as  Inn 


Foote  Family 
Wm.  R.  Wood 
Robert  Woolery 

*  This  list  of  names  was  compiled  by  the  Arden  Archives.  The  corresponding  dates  and  owners,  however, 
were  based  on  newspaper  and  other  references. 



Map  and  Key  to  Significant 
Elements  of  Arden's  Plan 


Key  to  Significant  Elements  of  Arden's  Plan 

Map  Reference  # Element 

1  Field  Theater 

2  Arden  Entrance  Stile 

3  Village  Green 

4  Sherwocxl  Green 

5  Arden  Pool 

6  Arden  Church  --  original  location 

7  Sherwood  Forest 

8  Arden  Woods 

9  Original  location  of  Tennis  Courts  before  Weaving  Shop 

10  Grubbs  Comer 

11  Little  Arden 





►J     F     U 



a    8    5 
ii  [£   o   £ 

Arden  Map,  1992 


Map  and  Key  to  Arden  Buildings 


Key  to  Arden  Buildings 

Chronological  Listing  of  Arden  Structures 
Map  Reference  # Date 
































First  Homestead 

2313  Woodland  Lane 


Admiral  Benbow 

Millers  Rd  &  Woodland 

[Later  moved  to  Millers  &  Little] 


Arden  Inn 

23 14  Cherry  Lane 


The  Brambles 

1905  Millers  Road 


Osnok  (Saints  Rest) 

1907  Millers  Rd.  (St.  Martins  Ln.) 


Red  House 

1807  Millers  Road 

pre- 1908 

The  Owls  Nest 

1801  Green  Lane 


The  Monastery 

2319  Walnut  Lane 


Cherry  Lodge 

2310  Cherry  Lane 


The  Second  Homestead 

2311  Woodland  Lane 


The  Chestnut  Burr 

2108  Sherwood  Road 


Woolery's  Store 

2210  Little  Lane 


Camp  Beulah 

2107  HiUside  Road 


Friendly  Gables 

2205  Little  Lane 


The  Willows 

1808  Harvey  Road 


Rest  Cottage 

2328  Cherry  Lane 


The  Potterie 

1900  Sherwood  Road 


The  Barnacle 

1704  Green  Lane 


The  Bluebird  [The  Vista] 

2320  Cherry  Lane 


Cosy  Comer 

1709  Green  I  .ane 



The  Highway 


The  Green  Gate 

2210  The  Sweep 


The  Lodge 

2209  Milky  Way 


Mary  Bruce  Inn  (Jungalow) 

2321  Woodland  Lane 


The  Spreading  Oak 

2211  Lower  Lane 


Craft  Shop 

1807  Millers  Road 


The  Cooler 

Millers  Rd  (next  to  Red  House) 


Rest  Harrow 

2212  The  Sweep 


The  Weaving  Shop 

1812  Millers  Road 


Arden  Map,  1992 



Arden  Land  Rentals 
1909, 1912 


Assessment  of  Arden  Land  Rentals  for  Year  Beginning  March  25/09 


Lewis  Kramer 
Ira  P.  Andrews 
R.  Barclay  Spicer 
Mrs.  A.  G.  Spicer 
Hannah  Weinstock  • 
Laura  Gerstein 
Olive  E.  Meyer 
Letitia  McKee 
George  Brown 
Joseph  Cohen 
Edyth  von  Wattenberg 
Helen  M.  Harding 
A.  G.  Spicer 
Stella  Andrews 
James  H.  Fincken 
Amy  E.  Wood 
Charles  F.  Shandrew 
Arthur  N.  Andrews 
R.  W.  W.  Clement 
A.  C.  Kiehel 
William  R.  Wood 
L.  M.  Clark 
T.  W.  Booth 
Patrick  Heffemin 
F.  J.  Steinlein 
R.  R.  Robinson 
Arden  Club  Theatre 
Elizabeth  Nusser 
Frank  Martin 
Anna  E.  English 
Frank  Stephens 
J.  L.  Cole 
E.  H.  Haworth 
James  Haworth 


East  corner  Grubb's  Lane  and  Marsh  Road 
South  corner  Marsh  Road  and  Wind  Lane 
East  comer  Marsh  Road  and  Wind  Lane 
Marsh  Road  east  of  Wind  Lane 

Marsh  Road  west  of  Miller's  Road 

South  corner  Miller's  Road  and  Marsh  Road 

Miller'.s  Road  and  Woodland  Path 

South  comer  Miller's  Road  &  Mill  Lane 

Mill  Lane  west  of  Miller's  Road 

Hillside  Road  to  Mill  Lane 

North  comer  Hillside  Road  and  Wind  Lane 

Grubb's  Lane  east  of  Marsh  Road 

"    .     "      west  of  Hillside  Road 
Miller's  Road  north  of  Hillside  Road 
West  comer  Miller's  Road  and  Hillside  Road 
North      " 

East        "  "  "  " 

South      " 
Hillside  Road  west  of  Miller's  Road 

East  corner  Grubb's  Lane  and  Hillside  Road 
East  side  Grubb's  Lane,  south  of  Hillside 
North  comer  Grubb's  Lane  and  Little  Lane 
East         "         "  " 

Woodland  Road 

South  comer  Little  Lane  and  Miller's  Road 
Miller's  Road  and  Camp  Fire  Path 
"     St.  Martin's  Lane 

((  ( (  I.  11  it 

North  corner  Miller's  Road  and  Orleans  Rd. 
North  side  Orleans  Rd.  east  of  Grubb's  Lane 
North  cor.  Orleans  Road  and  Grubb's  Lane 


ia  Ki).  ft 



per  lUWi 




9:'  ' 
































Assessment  of  Arden  Land  Rentals  for  Year  Beginning  March  25/09 


John  E.  Jenks 
Charles  F.  Nesbit 
^  *  -dtn  Tennis  Club 
'  •  Pels 
.aarry  Hoeffler 
F.  Stephens  (Red  House) 
Harold  Ware 
Chester  Lightbown 
Donald  Stephens 
Mary  A.  Simpson 
Arden  Improvement  Co. 
S.  A.  Clement 
E.  Gerstein 
H.  L.  Kumme 
H.  G.  Kumme 
M.  M.  Moore 
A.  Dunbar 
M.  Beane 
W.  L.  Lightbown 
Joseph  Fels 
■Donald  Stephens 
E.  E.  Moore 
Charles  Ervin 
W.  L.  Price 
Fred  Whiteside 
Scott  Nearing 
Alexander  Ervin 
Amy  M.  Hicks 
Frank  Stephens 
Frank  Stephens 
Margaret  Stephens 
Charles  S  hand  re  w 

Location  Area  Rate 

In  sq.  n  per  1000 

East  comer  Orleans  Road  and  Grubb's  Lane  40,000  .30 

South  "  "  "        "     Miller's  Road  40,000  .35 

West  corner  Milky  Way  and  Miller's  Road     46,000  .30 

South  corner  The  Sweep  and  Stile  Path  15,000  .30 

North  corner  The  Sweep  and  Grubb's  Lane    20,000  .30 

East  comer  Cherry  Lane  and  Miller's  Road    20,000  .35 

South  side  Cherry  Lane  east  of      "         "       13,850  .30 

North  cor.  Walnut  Lane  and  "         "       21,000  .30 

North  side  Walnut  Lane  east  of    "  "       30,000  .25 

South  side  Cherry  Lane  east  of     "         "       10,206  .35 

South  comer  Cherry  Lane  and  Inn  Lane         25,116  .30 
South  comer  Lower  Lane  and  Miller's  Road  20,000        .30 

East  comer  Walnut  Lane  and        "         "        31,313  .25 
South  side  Walnut  Lane  east  of    "          "       28,730        .25 

"        "  "  "  opposite  Inn  Lane       28,545  .25 

"  cast  of  Inn  Lane  28,525  .25 

"  east  of  Green  Lane       35,200  .25 

East  corner  Walnut  Lane  and  Green  Lane      35,325  .25 

East  corner  Village  Green  74,100  .35&.25 

South  comer  Village  Green  and  Green  Lane   35,000  .35&.25 

Southeast  side  Village  Green,  S.  Green  Lane  40,000  .35&.25 

East  corner  Village  Green  and  Inn  Lane  46,260  .35&.25 
North  comer  Village  Green  and  Green  Lane  31,000  .35 
Northeast  side  Village  Green,  N.  Green  Lane  13,125  .35 
East  comer  Village  Green  and  Creek  Road  17,500  .35 
West  cor.  Village  Green  and  Theatre  Path  16,000  .35 
North  "  "  "  "  "  "  15,000  .35 
West  "  "  "  Woodland  Rd.  20,800  .35 
North  side  Woodland  Rd  w.  of  Village  Green  20,000  .35 
Rear  of  Field  Theatre  7,000  .35 
North  cor.  Miller's  Road  and  Woodland  Rd.  20,000  .35 
Naaman's  Creek                                                   20,000       .35 

















12.00  ^ 











Assessment  of  Arden  Land  Rentals  for  Year  Beginning  March  25,1 2 


Leaseholder  Location  Area 

in  s'l.  It. 

Lewis   Kramer East  corner  Grubbs  and  Marsh  Roads 4-0,000 

John  B.  Menz South  corner  Marsh  Road  and  Wind  Lane 19,535 

Ira  P.  Andrews West  side  Wind  Lane  south  af  Marsh  Road 19,930 

Stella  Andrews Grubbs  Road  east  of  Marsh  Road 24-,075 

Ir.nies  H.  Fincken.  .  ..Grubbs  Road  west  of  Hillside  Road 60,497 

R.  D.  Spicer East  corner  Marsh  Road  and  Wind  Lane 4-0,000 

Mrs.  A.  G.  Spicer. . .  .Marsh  Road  east  of  Wind  Lane 23,700 

E.  Gerstein .\L-irsh  Road  east  of  Wind  Lane 4-7,400 

Olive  E.  Meyer Marsh  Road  west  of  Millers  Road 20,000 

Letitia  McKee South  comer  Millers  Road  and  Marsh  Road 50,691 

John  P.  Donelly East  corner  .Millers  Road  and  .Marsh  Road 12,000 

George  Brown Millers  Road  and  Woodland  Path 44-,67(i 

Joseph  E.  Cohen ^outh  corner  .Millers  Road  and  Mill  Lane 22,000 

i-Ielen  L.  Eordner.  .  ..Mil!  i..ane  west  of  Mi'lers  Road 20,000 

Percy  Russell. : I\rill  Lane  west  of  Millers  Road 39,885 

E.  ^L  Shandrew Hillside  Road  west  of  Millers  Road 20,000 

H.  D.  .Albright H  I'.side  Road  to  Mill  Lane 19,000 

.A.  G.  Spicer Xorlh  corner  Hillside  Road  and  Wind  Lane 20,000 

.Amy  E.  Wood Millers  Road  north  of  Hillside  Road 41,704 

West  corner  Mil'ers  Road  and  Hillside  Road . .  16,300 

C.  F.  Ward North  corner  Millers  Road  and  Hillside  Road 20,0o0 

R.  W.  W.  Clement. .  .South  side  Hillside  Road  at  Wood 52,309 

A.  C.  Kiehel Millers  Road  from  Little  Lane  to  Hillside  Road 53,570 

Catherine  French Hillside  Road  west  of  Millers  Road 39,009 

R.  De  Lan .Hillside  Road  west  of  Millers  Road 31,331 

IMoore Hillside  Road  west  of  Millers  Road 20,C0Q 

J.  .McKendrick East  corner  Grubbs  and  Hillside  Roads '.....  40,000 

Horace  Reis East  side  Grubbs  Road  south  of  Hillside  Road. . . .  20,000 

^L  R.  Fling. North  corner  Grubbs  Road  and  Little  Lane. . 40,098 

Joseph  Fels North  side  Little  Lsne  east  of  Grubbs  Road 40,019. 

E.  Ross Hast  corner  Little  Lane  and  Grubbs  Road 23,500 

Robert  Woolery East  of  Grubbs  Road  south  of  Little  Lane 28,865 

Elizabeth  Nusser South  corner  Little  Lane  and  Millers  Road 35,000 

.Angela  Marke .Millers  Road  and  Camp  Fire  Path 40.000     . 

Anna  E.  English North  corner  Millers  Road  and  St.  Martin's  Lane. .  54,700 

Frank'  B.  Downs East  corner  Millers  Road  and  St.  Martin's  Lane. . .  35,000 

n.  Noble \'orth  corner  Millers  Road  and  Orleans  Road 30,000 

E.  H.  Haworth North  side  Orleans  Road  east  Grubbs  Road. . . 20,000 

J.  H.  Garrod North  corner  Orleans  Road  and  Grubbs  Road 32,630 

A.  .A.  Taitavall East  corner  Orleans  Road  and  Grubbs  Road 30,145 

.A.  -A.  Taitavall South  corners  Orleans  Road  and  Millers  Road. . .  40,000 

Arden  Club West  corner  Milky  Way  and  Millers  Road 20,000 

W.  Worthington,  Jr-.North  corner  Milky  Way  and  Grubbs  Road 20,000 



liir  UllKi 


























9. OS 












20  85 












































.    28.80 



.64       ■ 



Assessment  of  Arden  Land  Rentals  for  Year  Beginning  March  25,12 


Leaseholder                Location                                                                        Area  Rate  Rent 

in  xq.  ft.  /.er  IVOO 

M.  H.  Hcefflcr Hast  corner  .Milky  Way  and  Grubbs  Road 20,000  .66  13.20 

E.  J.  Darling West  corner  the  Sweep  and  Millers  Road 30,000  .72  21.60 

L.  Clark South  corner  the  Sweep  and  Stile  Path 15,000  .66  9.90 

Fiske  Warren Millers  Road  and  Stile  Path 10,000  .66  6.60 

yp.  Stephens Miller's  Road,  Stile  Path  and  Lower  Lane 20,000  .60  13.20 

Earl  Xelson Milltrs  Road  south  corner  Lower  Lane 20,000  .66  13.20 

F.  Stephens (  Red  House)  East  cor.  Cherry  Lane  &  Millers  R'd.  18,850  .77  l-i.Sl 

Harold  Ware South  side  Cherry  Lane  east  of  Millers  Road 15,000  72  and  59  9.S2 

Frank  Stephens. ...  .Xorth  corner  Walnut  Lane  and  Millers  Road 21,000  .66  -             13.86 

Donald   Stephens Xorth  side  Walnut  Lane  east  of  Millers  Road. ....  30,000  .59  17.70-. 

Fiske  Warren South  side  Cherry  Lane  east  of  Millers  Road 10.206  .72  7.35 

Frank  Stephens South  corner  Cherry  Lane  and  Inn  Lane 7,116  .72  5.12 

Frank  Brunelle South  side  Inn  Lane  east  of  Cherry  Lane 9,000  .61  5.49 

Frank  Brunelle West  corner  Walnut  Lane  and  .Inn  Lane 9,000  .61  5.49 

E.  Gerstein East  corner  Walnut  Lane 28,800  .61  17.57 

H.  G.  Kumme South  side  Walnut  Lane  west  of  Inn  Lane 28,545  .59  16.84 

L.  Kumme South  side  Walnut  Lane  opposite  Inn  Lane 28,730  .58  16.66 

Louise  H.  Kumme. .  .Southeast  side  Lower  Lane  at  Millers  Road 7,000  .66  4.62 

E.  E.  Moore South  side  Walnut  Lane  east  of  Inn  Lane 28,525  .57  16.28 

A.  Dunbar South  side  Walnut  Lane  east -of  Green  Lane 35,200  .56  19.71 

M.  Beane East  corner  Walnut  Lane  and  Green  Lane 20,325  .53  10.  (1 

^  R.   Rautenberg East  side  Walnut  Lane  near  Green  Lane 15,000  .55  8.25 

W.  L.  Lightbown East  corner  Village  Green 54,450    -A  72  and  Vi.SS     36.12 

G.  Arlt Xorth  corner  Walnut  and  Green  Lane.' 19,650  -.55  10.81 

Joseph  Pels East  corner  'Village  Green  and  Inn  Lane 35.000  .72  and  .57          22.57 

Donald   Stephens. . .  .South  corner  Village  Green  and  Green  Lane 40,000  .72  and  .57         25.80 

E.  E.  Moore Southeast  side  \'illage  Green  south  Green  Lane. . .  4-6,260  .72  and  .59          30.30 

Charles  Ervin Xorth  corner  Village  Green  and  Green  Lane •t4,125  .'77  33.98 

Fred   Whiteside East  comer  Village  Green  and  Woodland  Road 17,500  .77  13.48 

.  .  R.   Ervin ^->v..  .Xorth  comer  Village  Green  and  Wood'land  Road.-:  .-10,000  -'_  .72  ,.     .,  ,7.2a 

Scott  Xearing ■;  .West  comer  Village  Green  and  Theatre  Path. . .'.  ;716,000  .77  12.32 

U.  Sinclair Xorth  corner  Village. Green  and  Theatre  Path 15,000  .77  11.55 

C.  B.  Currie West  corner  Village  Green  and  Woodland  Road. . .  20,800  .77  16.02 

C.   Shandrew Xaaman's  Creek 20,000  .77  15.40 

Frank  Stephens Xorth  side  Woodland  Road  west  of  Village  Green. .  37,415  .77  ^  28.81 

Arden  Club Woodland  Road 7,738  .77  5.96 

M.  Stephens Xorth  corner  Millers  Road  and  Woodland  Road. . .  29.610  .77  22.80 


Geo.  Brown,  Jr..'. . .  .South  side  Marsh  Road  west  of  Grubbs  Road 20,000 

Mary  Brown South  side  Marsh  Road  west  of  Grubbs  Road 20,000 

H.  Harrison ..West  corner  Marsh  and  Sherwood  Roads 20,000 

W.  Hambly West  of  Sherwood,  south  of  Marsh  Road 40,000 










Assessment  of  Arden  Land  Rentals  for  Year  Beginning  March25,'12 


Leaseholder  Location  .4rea  Hate  Rent 

itt  .v^.  tr. 

W.  F.  Shaw W'est  of  Sherwood  Road  north  of  Hillside  Roa<!. . .  -tO.OOO 

W.  P.  Nicolls West  of  Sherwood  Road  north  of  Hillside  Road. . .  20,000 

A.  X.  Tevis South  corner  Sherwood  and  Grubbs  Roads 16,04-7 

F.  Harrison West  side  Grubbs  Road  north  of  Hillside  Road. .  .  40,000 

H.  Harrison East  side  Sherwood  Road  north  of  Hillside  Road.  .  10.000 

W.  E.  Smith .Vorth  corner  Hillside  and  Sherwood  Roads 30,000 

Dr.  Hurlong West  corner  Hillside  and  Grubbs  Roads 20.000 

T.  W.  Farrell Grubbs  Road  west  of  Hillside  Road 20,000 

Scott  Xearing South  corner  Hillside  and  Sherwood  Roads  .  .  .  20.000 

Scott  Xearing .\orth  corner  Sherwood  Road  and  Lovers'  Lane. . .  -tO.OOO 

G.  Hamilton West  corner  Lovers'  Lane  and  Orleans  Road 30.954- 

Hal  Ware Mast  side  Sherwood  south  of  Hillside  Road 4-9,046 

J.  P.  Murphy West  .Mde  Sherwood  Road  south  of  Hillside  Road. .  20,000 

Simon   Lobros West  side  Sherwood  Road  south  of  Hillside  Road.  .  20,000 

L'pton   Sinclair West  corner  Sherwood  Road  and  Lovers"  Lane.  .  .  .  'JO.OOO 

George  Cohen South  corner  Sherwood  Road  and  Lovers'  Lane.  .  .  20.00(> 

H.  Harding West  of  Sherwood  Road,  north  of  Highway.  .  .  20,000 

F.  Shiebgen. West  of  Sherwood  Road  north  of  Highway 10,000 

I.  Reece West  of  Sherwood  Road  north  of  Highway 10,000 

L.  Clark. West  of  Sherwood  Road  nonh  of  Highway 20,000 

E.  S.  Potter :• , . .  .West  corner  Sherwood  Road  and  Highway 20,000 

E.  S.  Potter South  comer  Sherwood  Road  and  Highway 20,000 

C.  L.  Potter East  corner  Sherwood  Road  and  Highway 20,000 

S.  C.  Windle." South  side  Highway  east  of  Sher^vood  Road 20,000 

A.  Horton South  side  Highway  east  of  Sherwood  Road 20,000 

Arden  Club Highway  and  Orleans  Road 90,065 

J.  H.  Garrod South  corner  Orleans  Road  and  Lovers'  Lane 28,700 

A.  Horton South  side  Lovers'  Lane  west  Orleans  Road 20,000 

A.  Horton '. South  side  Lovers'  Lane  west  Orleans  Road 20,000 

E.  C.  Gillette South  side  Lovers'  Lane  west  Orleans  Road 20,000 

A.  N.  Tevis East  comer  Lovers'  Lane  and  Sherwood  Road 20,000 

Hal  Ware... . . ..... .South  comer  Grubbs  and  Hillside  Roads 40,000 

J.  Taylor .Southwest  side  Grubbs  Road  east  Hillside  Road. . .  20,000 

C.  Finkclstcin . . . . .'.  .Southwest  side  Grubbs  Road  east  Hillside  Road. . .  20,000 

:■  W.  C.  Ferris '. .  ;South  comer  Gmbbs  Road  and  Lovers'  Lane 22,000 

'  C  F.  Ward. . . . .... . .West  side  Grubbs  Road  south  Lovers'  Lane 20,500 

D.McWilliams.r.  .'.'.West  side  Grubbs  Road  south  Lovers*  Lane 20,500 

bF;i'BruneU; :  .S';>V^^^^  Orleans  Roads 20,000 

>'R.  Binkleyi'.CtV;'^:^iNorA  «  Road  west  Grubbs  Road 10,000 

7li.i^ge^^r.|^^M-)^VNprU^^  Grubbs  Road 10,000 

4;J*^^eU.  v?'§S«^'P^H'?^tttK»r^^                        and  Grubbs  Road.....  40,000 
ijt^yirM^p^oote.^^^w^^^^  of  Orleans  Road 40,000 

mmi^Cbii^f^^^  .::..v:, 

t^w.^,-)-..  — »■  ...,jt»>nlBtf?D«<idfofcTrp»t,  Pom  of  Leased  Constitntion,  etc.. 

fMT«M$ii)ltApl!m^lf''^9<ii*nf<>^iSe,  :BlwFTintm*pAt  ume  price,  but 
'>^:^fC^H^v't'^j^iS^^'1|S*  ?**^f^i**^^^''*  **^^  (nut b«  allowed  (or  making:. 
-viiBitf^SS^i^^^fis^^I^liaiM^  Town  0«tk  of  chang*  of  address. 

-  151- 

IH-r  iniiii 

















.41    • 



















4  40 















61  and  .50 





.  10.60 




•  10.00 















.66      . 












Poem  from  Frank  Stephens  to  William  Price 


To  Will  Price 
October  14, 1916 

Good-by  a  little.  Strange  and  far  away 

The  once  familiar  places  that  we  knew, 
Empty  the  dull  round  of  the  dreary  day 
Through  which  of  old  the  sunlit  hope  would  play. 
That  it  might  bring  me  -  you. 

It  was  so  Beautiful  that  Land-we-dreamed 

Toward  which  we  toiled  together,  you  and  I 
So  very  near  at  times  its  hilltops  gleamed, 
So  near  and  fair  that  pleasant  country  seemed. 
And  now  —  Good-by. 

That  City  of  the  Blessed  to  which  our  feet 

Trod  the  rough  way,  bright-spired  it  rose  and 


Such  joyous,  pleasant  folk  we  looked  to  meet 

As  we  wander  through  it,  street  by  street. 
And  now  ~  Good-by. 

Good-by,  but  where  to  seek  you?  May  it  be 

Now,  even  as  the  darker  grows  the  way. 
That  you  have  found  our  Country-of  -the-Free 
And  in  its  Wondrous  City  wait  for  me. 
Good-by  —  until  Some  Day. 

(Song  written  by  Frank  Stephens  following  Will  Price's  death.) 

-  153 


National  Register  Nomination  Form,  1973 

-  154 

»»^  IO.jOC 

NATIONAL  RCCISTER  Of  mVT0nC^Pl£»Ce&3    r C 


•  ■■»>  «^^? 

!te*»-  Cast^  ■-',  is-r ■■  * -- 

*<««!*«^feOSe  •Cmt^i^'-:^'^^  • 

T-  1,   '  .  1 ^  .  .   . — 

"^c  :v- 

^^  ■  ~  .  i 




Villaqg  of  Arden .  Arden ^  Delawajge*^- 


Villao*   of   AT'iKn.    Arden.    DeU<«arc 


'»**!•*    ftxr  *>oft**ci>* 

_  <;iK  »ilg«  north  of  Wjlainoton.  in  Brandyirinc  Hundred.  Between 

M^,^K  a«^^  N.»««f,']|  (;rg^}^^  Ardentotm  anA  BnincorTx>rated  areas 

^     CLMJIF I  CATION  _ 


New  Castle 


•-  »f£CO»T 





■~1      6>Mf  C«MS(4*«W 

X    Occ.nW 


TO  TM€  Ptt«tJC^ 



,*•*•••-•    ^>«<     '<'r  *r*  f}M*  •«  Wmv  •# 
'  %     t  >•»..  ...  ..  th-Mva 

E  Ort»r^.  f«Mc/l^>  . 

F./»-tf    y.  ■_ 


Tft»«t—   of   Ard>n 

2111   OgU*H»  Road 


H-    LOCATtbw  or  ttOAt.  BtSCWyTION 

Delaware     X9810' 


■.*-;^S*fi!  ■ 

CCvj«rMOV*€     •ft64«T«v    i--    OC&O*     CTC 

Recor<i«r   of  Deeds   Office .   County  Bulldijiq 

•       -^ 

■  TMCC  T    *«»0  •«U«««C*- 

Ro^atY  sqarf 

I*.  BtwiCiertATiowiwexisTiwciuovEy* 

CI  T»    OW    TO«W 


Dei&wtaz;e^      19810 


TIT1.C  o*'  twAvrr 


DATS   or  tultv 

"      a 

O  c.—^        D  i-c»t 


1  £•'■<. 

Da*o«treMv  ^oa  •wwvcv  ncco«o«c 

•  TMIST    *MOMUM«C«: 

-^  -f'- 

ClTV    0«    Tfl 










<c«Mrtt.i»    \_/        —  ■;  ^.  ,^  ^ 

B   C— <  Q  r«tr       "  O    OiM  ■■■Iri  Q  ll»4«.  O   If   I    ■MiV 


•  Mi<»4;    B^OrtfiiKi^SM^ 

tlM  pt*«ent  district,  rou^l^^sqoaxe^r  coincides  i»itl^the~to»itt'  - 
booixUrlcs  and  cavers  about  163  acxea*: :  0!^:tii«««v-7-9  are:^devio(tedfe.  .  ^ 
to  public  use;  the  otb«r  84  acre*  are  leas«d.,ifor  boaes±tcs-.  On  ^i,   .   ^ 
the  eastern  and  wvrtem  borders  of  the  toHnslte  la.  f ore*t_.;laxtdi£  -,.  ■- 
several  hundred  yards  deep,  eerving;  for  recreation',  consesvation, 
and  as  a  buffer  against  neighboring  developnents.'  Xwo^laccge  vHdage^ 
greens,  each  forming  a  neighborhood,  focus ^  other  open  spacesi.and- a 
network  of  ccanunlty  roadMays  and  pedestrian  paths  occupy:tfae- 
remaining  public  land.  The  town  is  unequally  bisected  by  Harvey~ 
Road  (Del.  209). 

Clustered  betveeft  the  twe  forests  are  190  leaseholds  of.  froa: 
about  10,000  to  over  6O,000  square  feet  each,  (total  84  acres). 
Baildiags,  placed  randOBljr  on-  tbelx  lots,,  and  built  principally  ;ln- 
the  period  1900-1950,  are- notably  varied  in- «at«triAa ,  sty le^^^  else  and 
value .   Natural  growths  of  trees  and  shrubs  having  been  protected 
and  plantings  fostered  since  1900,  the  entire  town  tract  now  has  a. 
parkliice  appearance. 

Of  especial  interest  Is  the  Gmbb  faaily  burying -ground ,  witli 
gravestones  dating  bade  to  the  aid-lSth  century.   This  is  cared  for 
by  the  Trustees  of  Arden,  as  stipulated  in  the  Trust  Deed. 

Hm  Gild  />i£7  U»ll>  the  clubhouse  of  the  Arden  Clvb   (all 
residmts  &re  ipelcoaed  as  aeabers),  is  the  refurbished  bam  found 
on  the  property .«l)cn.  Ardua  was.Joaod^d.   It  is-,  in  fact,  the  focus 
of  conunity  affairs ,  both  civic  and  recreational..  The  original 
farahouse  also  is  still  staitding,  but  has  been  rebuilt. 

Aaong  the  early  Arden  houses  are  the  "Hcaestead",  an 
Elixabethan-style  building  iriilch  was  the  late  Prank  Stephens'  hoae; 
"Rest  Cottage";  the  "Lodge";  axvi  several  other  English-cottage-type 
half-tiabered  btiildings,  with  interesting  carving...  The  carving  and 
the  stained  glass  found  In  the  earliest  Ard«i  houses  were  the  work 
of  Arden  artisans. 

Tlte  Craft  Shop,  ableh  formerly  housed  a  forge  and  furniture 
shop,  as  well  as  the  studio  of  sculptor  Stei^tens,  is  still  preserved 
at  a  comer  of  tbe  Ardea  Green.  Also  structurally  intact  is  the 
Arden  Weaving  Shop,  where  craftsaen  wove  until  tbe  late  1940 's.^ 

Boundaries:  Booaded  on  the  north  by  Marsh  Road  (Del.  3),  <oa- 
the  east  by  Naaaan's  Cre^,  on  the  south  by  Ardentom,  Meadow  Lane 
and  tbe  coar9«»«sf''Aboatt  (Cochran '•)  Creckv  and  on-  the  west  by  a„ 
straight  line  with  land  fomerly  of  Janes  Cochran,  all  nore  fully-  ..-: 
described  in  a  deed  dated  January  21,  £901,  filed  in  the  office  of 
the  Recorder  of  Deeds,- New  Castle  County. 



»PtC     ^'C    0»Tt««i    <7/  i 

O  6^1  mm  .^  .  .    .        Q.t.l.,.».<PW. 


It)    Lwtiii,!,-  Q   So.T»lw. 


Ax  den  deserves  pxesexvation  for  several  reasoiw : 

1.  Founded  in  1900,  in  thei'  tradition  nf   Utopiai^  coiBsmaiti«s-,  it  ., 
is  one  of  the  few  mvch   experimental  colonies  t<  siKceed  amf  survives  j^' 
to  the  present  in  a  reasonable  approximation  of  the  original  intest. 
In  Axden,  that  intent  was  to  demonstrate  the  workability  of  the 
land  value  theory,  ;>opularly  known  as  "the  Single  Tax",  of  th«-  ■ 
political  economist  Henry  George  (1839-1897).   Axden  is  the  only 
exai^le  in  the  United  States  of  an  entire  village  still  operatlog 
on  a  Single  Tax  basis.   (See  htote  A:   Arden  and.  the  Single  Tax) 

2.  Axden  is  a  plooeering  exa:q>le  of  successful  town  planning. 
Although  it  was  planned  at  the  beginning  of  this  cantury,  it 
embodies  urban  design  concepts  that  are  gaining  wide  acceptance 
70  years  later.   The.  town's  planners.  Prank  Stephens,  sculptor,, 
and  Will  ^ice,  architect,  employed  cluster  development,  conserva'tio^ 
of  woodlands,  generous  use  of  open  space  and  separation  of 
vehicular  and  pedestrian  traffic  by  the  use  of  pedestrian  paUis.- 

3.  Axden  is  unique  fox  IvS  highly  developed  participatory 
democracy,  based  on  a  .functioning  town  meeting  fsm  of  jn  irn— iit 
Ihe  original  village  uawd  a  town  meeting,  wtiieh  hfta  >■■.»  formallced. 
and  stx«igthened  in  recent  years .   The  town  has  been  incorporated 
by  the  state  and  the  Town  Assembly  of  the  Village  oi   Arden  has  mivmxjf; 
power  any  municipality  may  have  in  Delaware. 

4.  Arden  has  been  f roK;  its  inception  and  still  is  a  center  of  art,, 
music,  drama  and  craftsmanship  both  for  its  townspe^le  and  the 
surrounding  area.   As  admirers  of  Pre-Raphaelite  wrlter-artlst 
William  Morris  (1834-1896),  Aiden's  fonndexa  saw  their  village  as 
a  Bjy  o^  9zeat.  freedom  and  beauty  where  creative  and  performing 
artswooid  be  part  ofj dally  £S£e.  Beca)»e-i  the-  pexformancer  of    .^ 
Shakespeare's  plays  was  considered  by  them  to  be  the  best  way  to 
bccoae  persuasive  orator sr  in  spreading  the  Georgist  land  value 
theory,  the  founders  boUt  an  open  air  theatre  before  any 
permanent  houses  were  contructed.   That- theatre,  whexe 
9iakeapearean  play*  were ^ performed  weekly.  Is  preserved  in  memory 
of  Prank  Stephens  and  i»   still  used  for  outdoor  drama  productions 
and  for  cr— minity  events. 


F*««   1w*300« 



'  DirAATMCMT  Of  TNC  wrnKM 

lOHAt.  p^mc  isnnct 


(CantimmttoB  Sheet) 



New  castle 

'©•MPSUSt  OW.T 

t*«r««    NvjMftC* 

tNumtmf  mil  mi**rl9») 

8.   SICgtIFICANCE  (continued) 

5.   Arden  has  preserved  a  tr»ie  village  with  ._  deep  sense  of  community 
among  residents  who  are  highly  diverse  in  age,  political,  economic, 
educational  and  ethnic  characteristics.   This  community,  moreover, 
has  maintained  its  identity  although  surrounded  by  typical  developments 
of  an  urban  sprawl,  and  despite  normal  p<^>ulation  fluidity  from  the 
time  of  its  founding.   It  is  significant  that  many  children  and 
grandchildren  of  Arden's  early  "colonists"  return  to  Ajden  to  live, 
as  do  many  former  resident*.   There  is  always  a  waiting  list  for  houses 
in  the  village.  Tbere  is  no  more  land  to  be  leased. 

The  coooBunity  is  a  unique  physical,  and  social  entity  to  be 
protected.   The  fxindamental  significance  of  the' Single  Tax  village  of 
Arden  is  that  a  cooBunity  foozxled  on  ideas  attracts  diverse  people    -c 
interested  in  ideas,  and  such  people— even  though  the  individuals  and 
families  change  over  the  years -continue  to  build  and  matlntain  a 
living  caoBtunlty  of  self -renewing  vitality. 

Arden's  ^lllty  to  continue  its  historic,  cultural,  educational,  -. 
civic,  econoalc  and  social  functions  for  Its  own  residents  ajad  tor 
the  nelgU>orlng  aze<k  ^lepends  on  preserving  Its  physical  integrity. 
This  is  potentially  threatened  by  Increasing  traffic  on  Harvey  Road,   .' 
and  by  population  pressures  in  the  adjacent  neighborhood. 


uwiee  »T*T«%  otPMTHeiT  o»  Tut  MTt«<o* 
/    .        (     i'MAc  r*M  tcavict                   ■     > 



rCcmrmaMNat  Shta<> 

i  T«ew  Caitte 

f^omftn  use  oi«,T'. 

CMT*T    ■CUM«C* 



(Mtiwbvf  mil  M* 



Arden  was  founded  in  190O  as  an  e]q>«rinen'tal  community  to  carry 
out  th«  land  value  theory  of  Henzy  George,  the  Influential  19tb. 
century  American  political  econunist  (1839-1897).   This  th«ory,  as. 
advocated  by  George  in  his  popular  book,  ProoTcas  and  Poverty  (Z879),  « 
is  based  on  the  belief  that  the  source  of  all  wealth  is  the  land-;  that, 
if  the  land  is  owned  by  the  conmunity  and  the  "fulX' economic  rent"  is 
charged  for  '.ts  use,  the  accruing  funds  will  provide  enough  money  Yo 
operate  the  government,  with  no  need  for  other  taxes.   The  land  tax 
would  theoretically  force  the  best  possible  use  of  the  laoid  and 
eliminate  the  type  of  unproductive  speculator  trtio  lets  land  stand  idle 
to  increase  in  value.   To  the  present,  Arden  operates  under  the  Single.. 
Tax  land  valuation  systen,  serving  as  a  working  model  of  Henry  George *s 

The  legal  docuttent  which  provides  for  Arden 's  tax  system  is- the 
Deed  of  Trus't,  established,  by  the  founders  of  the  town,  Friknk  Stephens 
and  Will  Price.   All  Arden  land  is  owned,  by  the  Trustees  of  Arden,  who^ 
adminis-tex-  the  tzxist  for  tb*- benef iciaxies ,  the  iixiividuals  who  lease  . 
the  land.   There  ax*  three  trustees,  who  serve-  for  life.  The  approval 
of  a  majority  of  all  the  residents  is  required  to  select  a  new  tcustee. 
The  trustees  issue  99'-jrcaz  lease*,  to  individuals  who  pay  an  annual  tax 
or  land  rent,  based  on  the  total  square  feet  of  land  leased.   In  turn,.. 
the  trustees  use  the  land  rent  money  to  pay  county- and  school  taxes 
and  other  outside  obligations  of  the  coanunity.   The  surplus  is 
available  to  the  Town  Assembly,  the  local  governing -body,  whose  btidgetj 
set  by  the  elected  Budget  Coaa^ttee,  mu*t  be  approved  by  a  majority 
of  all  the  residents,  to  benefit  the  entire  conmunity. 

The  annual  land  rent  Is  set  by  a  sevcn-aan  Board  of  Assessor*, 
•lect«d  annually  by  the  Hare  system  of  proportional  representations 
It  is  the  sworn  duty  of  tb*  assessor*  to  xletermlne^the  "full  rental 
value"  of  ^jSe^Biya^^isia^  GeoKgist  pr±nclpl«a^ -and>  thereby 
calculate  the  yearly  base  xental  rate  for  the- land« 

Because  of  Ard*n'*  small  population,  the  government  is  close  to 
the  pe^le  and  a  relatlveJLy  large  niHt>er  of  residents- are  active  in 
Town  Assembly  affair*. 



— t-OCMAWWOH.  tUMttllCtt 

A  iOde   o  thm   Ft«^ 

Bckaann,  J«*i(  tt«^  Jid  other. 

New  York.  19S5. 
Arden  Archives  In  custody  at  Historical  Society  of  DelMnr* 
Congre»«lon»l  Research  Service,  A  Study  of   Pronerttr  Taxarlo^  For 

United  States  Senate  r«_>4|^  pp  Goverment  OperZtT^;;;; 

hbbhington,  D.C.  1971.  

Rue,  Anita  Wilson,  Arden  Revel,  "n-fyf^^  unpubUshed  Master's  thesis] 

University  of  Delaware,  Newark,  1961.  ' 

Wynn,  Robert,  The  Full  Rental  Value:   A  Study  of  the  Xax  Rate  in     ! 

Arden,  Using  Single  Tax  Theory;  Master's  thesis.  U.  of  D.   Ne»arl|. 

Fwi.    CtOOWAyMtCAU  DAT* 


t.*T>ruOC    AMD   CO^tAiTUOC    C0O«O«NATCa 


39*    48  •  56" • 
39*   48  -  56    *, 
39*   48  •  25    * 
39*   48  •  g«    • 


Dl»n«,  *>.«•»•  W««a4> 

75*  29*  40' 
75*  .?8"  47* 
75*     28'    47' 

LATiTUOC    a««0   k <>••&•  'OC  t   COO«3>MA  ▼«« 

^  *  T-  »00« 

D^y—     M«Mw*»«     Wc«M« 

— ^ 

u  :,«s6'  t^jC* 

0*9' < 


NO  COUMTIC*  »0«   »«»0*««TtBS  OVCIIk.*^ **«»•  STATC   O^   CCc"- 

•  Oo"iC  *••€• 

-I     — 

:!niry^*^'^  ■'?■■' 


Mew  Castle 


Ci—iiii1ty  Plannino  Ca—itt— .  ViUaoe  of  Arden 

0«  •  *  *•(  Z  *  rt  OM 

2110  Wind  Lane 





A*  tka  4m(iM(rd  Stat*  Lijwaa  OOacvr  (or  dte  Ma' 
tlonal  Htuanc  Praacrvatioa  Ad  of  IS66  (Puktic  I^« 
•S46S).  I  li«nby  mamiimf  ikta  ||n|in|  (or  iwcl— t— 
la  t^  HatlgMl  |tasl«<M  a««.^i>>t>lT4kM  M  ka«  kMa 
roalaalad  ii  i  w<i«t  I*  the  ctimw»^«»*  guciiti  w  — 
fwik  br  Um  NMUmI  Pw*  SotvIc*.  Tk>  n  ri»i  iiiii 
l»*al  e(  »igiiltr««c«  ft  thi*  .MMBUas  to: 

HatMMl     a  !■•(•     a  L«ca>     O 

Dr.   B.   Berkeley  Towpkiis 



mrieitM.  tecisTC«  vcwrieaTicii 


t  kafaby  cvftify  ihai  ilua  prspaflir  ia  ncludad  in  < 
NatioaLRatiataT.  -      • 

CMaf.  O/Hca  al  Archmolatr  fd  Himtmic  Pn 




ICaapar  ot  Th*  Watianal  ITaCiMar 






Price  and  Dickey  Commissions 
in  Arden  and  Ardencroft 


Price  &  Dickey  Commissions 

The  Price  architectural  tradition  was  carried  on  by  William  L.  Price's  son  William  Webb 
Price.  In  the  1950's,  roughly  40  years  after  the  death  of  his  father,  William  W.  Price  and 
his  partner  John  M.  Dickey  were  commissioned  to  design  several  Arden  and  Ardencroft 
buildings.  Included  among  these  are: 

Emanuel  Gerstine  Residence 

Michael  Jaffe  Residence 

Proposed  Church 

Robin  Hood  Theater,  additions 

James  Steen  Residence,  alterations 

Don  Stephens  Residence,  additions 

Bastwien  Residence 

Colgan  Residence 

Edmund  Hourlong  Residence,  additions 

Andrew  Kappel  Residence 

Stanley  Lintner,  proposed  residences 

David  McClintock,  proposed  residence 

Herb  Stevens  Residence,  alterations 



























The  above  list  represents  the  buildings  attributed  to  the  firm  Price  &  Dickey  of  Media, 
PA.  The  drawings  of  these  houses  are  in  the  Price  &  Dickey  collection  at  the  Athenaeum 
of  Philadelphia. 

- 162- 


Primary  Sources 

Books  and  Published  Materials 

Bloor,  Ella  Reeve,  ^f^e  Are  Many.  NY:  International  Publishers  Co.,  Inc.,  1940. 

Canby,  Henry  Seidel.  Age  of  Confidence:  Life  in  the  Nineties.  NY:  Farrar  &  Rinehart, 

Downing,  Andrew  Jackson.  The  Architecture  of  Country  Houses.  1850.  Reprint.  NY: 
DaCapo  Press,  1968. 

George,  Henry.  Progress  and  Poverty.  1879.  Reprint.  NY:  Robert  Schalkenback  Foun., 

Hering,  Oswald.  Concrete  and  Stucco  Houses.  NY:  McBride,  Nast  &  Co.,  1912. 

Hooper,  Charles  Edward.  The  Country  House.  NY:  Doubleday,  Page  &  Co.,  1906. 

Howard,  Ebenezer.  Garden  Cities  of  Tomorrow.  1902.  Reprint.  London:  Faber  and 
Faber  Ltd.,  1946.  This  book  was  originally  published  in  1898  as  Tomorrow:  A 
Peaceful  Path  to  Real  Reform. 

Kemp,  Harry.  Tramping  On  Life:  An  Autobiographical  Narrative .  NY:  Boni  and 
Liveright  Publishers,  1922. 

Miller,  Joseph  Dana.  Single  Tax  Year  Book.  New  York,  NY:  Single  Tax  review 
Publishing  Co.,  1917.  (HGS). 

Morris,  William.  News  From  Nowhere.  1890.  Reprint.  London:  Longmans,  Green  and 
Co.,  1924. 

Price,  W.L.  Model  Houses  for  Little  Money.  Philadelphia:  Curtis  Publishing  Company, 

Sears,  Roebuck  and  Co.  Our  Special  Catalog  for  Homebuilders.  1910.  Reprint.  NY: 
Dover  Publications,  Inc.,  1990. 

Sinclair,  Upton.  The  Autobiography  of  Upton  Sinclair.  NY:  Harcourt,  Brace  &  World, 
Inc.,  1962. 

Sinclair,  Upton.  The  Jungle.  NY:  Doubleday,  1906.  Reprint.  NY:  Viking  Penguin,  Inc., 

Squires,  Frederick.  The  Hollow  Tile  House.  NY:  The  William  T.  Comstock  Co.,  1913. 

Stephens,  Frank.    Some  Songs.  Arden,  DE:  The  Arden  Press,  1935. 


Stickley,  Gustav,  ed.  Craftsman  Bungalows.  NY:  Dover  Publications,  Inc.,  1988. 

Stickley,  Gustav.  Craftsman  Homes.  1909.  Reprint.  NY:  Dover  PubUshing  Co.,  Inc., 

Stickley,  Gustav.  More  Craftsman  Homes.  1912.  Reprint.  NY:  Dover  Publishing  Co., 
Inc,  1982. 

Tomlinson,  Genevieve,  comp.  Addresses  of  Everett  S.  Tomlinson.  Chicago:  W.H. 
Eckhardt,  1926. 

Manuscripts  and  Unpublished  Works 

Arden  Papers.  (HSD). 

AssessmentofArdenLandRentals,  1909,  1912.  Arden  Papers.  (HSD). 

"Frank  Stephens  --  Travel  Talks  and  Lectures."  1909-1910  Season.  Frank  Stephens 
Clippings  File.  (PAFAL).  A  pamphlet  advertising  Stephens'  lecture  senes, 
including  talks  on  Europe,  American  politics,  economic  reform,  Shakespeare,  and 
even  Arden  itself. 

Fels,  Joseph  Papers.  (HSP). 

Minutes  of  the  Ethical  Society  Board  of  Trustees,  1885  -  1892.  (ES). 

Pennsylvania  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  Student  Records.  (APAFA). 

Philadelphia  Sketch  Club  Membership  Book.  Archives  of  American  Art  Microfilm 
#3666.  (PEL). 

Price  Office  Work  Album.  (AOP). 

Price,  Susanna  Martin.  "The  Story  of  the  Price  Lightfoot  Family."  1929.  (FHLSC). 

Ross,  Katherine  F.  "The  Most  Unforgettable  Character  I've  Met."  February  8,  1949. 
Arden  Papers.  (HSD). 

Stephens,  Alice  Barber.  "Personality  of  William  L.  Price."  Box  19.  Arden  Papers. 

Stephens,  G.  Frank.  "Autobiography."    Undated.  Arden  Papers.  (HSD). 

Journal  and  Newspaper  Articles 

Arden  Advocate,  1902.  (AA). 

Arden  Club  Talk,  1908  -  1909.  (AA). 
Arden  Leaves,  1910-1913.  (AA). 


"Arden,  The  Single  Tax  Colony  Just  in  its  Winter  Sleep."    Arden 

Scrapbook,       1912.  (HSD). 

Cohen,  James  E.  Arden.  1907.  Reprint.  Arden,  DE:  Arden  Printery,  1910. 

Congdon  Herbert  Wheaton.  "Building  a  Church  for  a  Small  Congregation."  The 
Architectural  Record.  Vol.  27,  161-173,  1910. 

CoveU  Alwyn  T.  "Returning  to  the  Casement  Window."  The  Architectural  Record. 

'vol.  33,437-443,  1913. 

David  Arthur  C.  "An  Architect  of  Bungalows  in  California."  The  Architectural  Record. 
'vol.  20,  307-315, 1906. 

_.  "Many  Ardenites  are  Sore  Today."  June  27,  1910.  Arden  Scrapbook, 

1910.  (HSD). 

Price  William,  Hawley  McLanahan,  and  Horace  Traubel,  eds.  The  Artsman.  Moylan, 
'   PA:  Rose  Valley  Press,  1903-1908. 

Price  William  L.  "Choosing  Simple  Materials  for  the  House"  in  Country  Homes  and 
Gardens  of  Moderate  Cost.  ed.  by  Charles  F.  Osborne.  Philadelphia:  John  C. 
Winston  Co.,  1907. 

Price,  WUliam  L.  "Decorative  Treatment  of  Plaster  Walls."  The  Brickbuilder.  Vol.  20, 
181-90.  1911. 

Price,  William  L.  "The  House  of  the  Democrat."  The  Craftsman.  Vol.  21,  pp.  2,  191 1. 

Price,  Will.  "Peace  Man  or  War  Man."  Committee  on  Philanthropic  Labor,  Philadelphia 
Yearly  Meeting  of  Friends,  1915.  Arden  Papers.  (HSD). 

Price  William.  "A  Philadelphia  Architect's  Views  on  Architecture."  The  American 
'  Arc/i/r^cr,  October  24,  1903,pp.27-8. 

Priestman,  Mabel  Tuke.  "The  Summer  Camp  at  Arden  Being  an  Experiment  in  Henry 
George  Principles."  American  Homes  and  Gardens,  V,  May  1908,  pp.  180-3. 

"Restoring  to  the  Home  its  Individuality."   New  York  Tribune.  Arden 

Scrapbook,  1912.  (HSD). 

Spencer,  Robert  C.  "Building  a  House  of  Moderate  Cost."  The  Architectural  Record. 
Vol.  32,  37-45,  1912. 

Friends'  Intelligencer.  Philadelphia,  November  1 1,  1916.  In  this  issue  a  tribute  was 
made  in  memory  of  W.L.  Price.  (FHLSC). 

Atlas  of  the  State  of  Delaware.  Philadelphia,  PA:  Pomeroy  &  Beers,  1868.  (HSD). 


Atlas  of  New  Castle  County.  Philadelphia,  PA:  G.  Wm.  Baist,  1893.  (HSD). 
Bellefonte  Map,  Sanborn  Map  Company,  July,  1936.  (PFL). 

United  States  Geological  Survey  Map.  "Marcus  Hook,  PA  -  Del.  -  NJ,"  1948.  (MLGD). 
United  States  Geological  Survey  Map.  "Marcus  Hook,  PA  -  Del.  -  NJ,"  1953.  (MLGD). 
"Arden  1900-1975,"  1975.  (HSD). 

Public  Documents 

Register  of  Deeds,  Wilmington,  DE.  Deed  Book  G17,  p.345,  June  12,  1900. 

Register  of  Deeds,  Wilmington,  DE.  Deed  Book  V18,  p.36,  October  17,  1901. 
Register  of  Deeds,  Wilmington,  DE.  Deed  Book  V21,  p.84,  January  31,  1908. 

Secondary  Sources 

Books  and  Published  Materials 

Ayres,  William,  ed.  A  Poor  Sort  of  Heaven...  A  Good  Sort  of  Earth:  The  Rose  Valley  Arts 
and  Crafts  Experiment.  Chadds  Ford,  PA:  Brandywine  River  Museum,  1983. 
Catalog  from  1983  exhibit  of  Rose  Valley  Arts  and  Crafts,  Brandywine  River 
Mus.,  Chadds  Ford,  PA. 

Bender,  Thomas.  Toward  an  Urban  Vision:  Ideas  and  Institutions  in  Nineteenth  Century 
America.  Baltimore,  MD:  The  Johns  Hopkins  University  Press,  1975. 

Boorstin,  Daniel  J.  The  Americans:  The  National  Experience.  NY:  Vintage  Books, 

Brevda,  William.  Harry  Kemp:  The  Last  Bohemian.  Cranbury,  NJ:  Assoc.  Univ. 
Presses,  1986. 

Christensen,  Carol  A.  The  American  Garden  City  and  the  New  Towns  Movement.  Ann 
Arbor,  MI:  UMI  Research  Press,  1986. 

Delaware  Art  Museum.  Artists  in  Wilmington  1890-1940.  Wihnington,  DE:  Delaware 
Art  Museum,  1980. 

Dudden,  Arthur  P.  Joseph  Pels  and  the  Single  Tax  Movement.  Philadelphia,  PA:  Temple 
University  Press,  1971. 

Federal  Writers'  Project  of  the  Works  Progress  Administration.  Delaware:  A  Guide  to 
the  State.  1938.  Reprint.  NY:  Hastings  House,  1955. 

Fels,  Mary.  Joseph  Fels:  His  Life-Work.  NY:  B.W.  Huebsch,  1916. 


Fried,  Albert.  Socialism  in  America:  From  the  Shakers  to  the  Third  International.  NY: 
Doubleday,  1970. 

Guameri,  Carl  J.  The  Utopian  Alternative.  Ithaca,  NY:  Cornell  University  Press,  1991. 

Hall,  Edward  T.  Hidden  Dimension.  Garden  City,  NY:  Doubleday,  1966. 

Hamilton,  Virginia  L.,  ed.  Aurora 's  Architectural  Heritage.  East  Aurora,  NY:  SG  Press, 

Handlin,  David  P.  The  American  Home:  Architecture  and  Society,  1815-1915. 

Henderson,  Philip.    William  Morris:  His  Life,  Work  and  Friends.  NY:  McGraw-Hill, 

Hendricks,  Gordon.  The  Life  and  Work  of  Thomas  Eakins.  NY:  Grossman  Publishers, 

Hinds,  William  Alfred.  American  Communities  and  Co-Operative  Colonies.  1898. 
Reprint.  Chicago:  Charles  H.  Kerr  &  Co.,  1908. 

Hiss,  Tony.  The  Experience  of  Place.  NY:  Vintage  Books,  1990. 

Huntington,  Charles  White.  Enclaves  of  Economic  Rent.  Harvard,  MA:  Fiske  Warren, 

Koyl,  George  S.,  ed.  American  Architects  Directory.  NY:  RR  Bowker  Co.,  1955. 

Lancaster,  Clay.  The  American  Bungalow  1880-1930.  NY:  Abbeville  Press,  1985. 

Longstreth,  Edward.  The  Art  Guide  to  Philadelphia.  Phila.:  Edward  Longstreth,  1925. 

Mumford,  Lewis,  ed.  Roots  of  Contemporary  American  Architecture.  1952.  Reprint. 
NY:  Dover  Publications,  Inc.,  1972.  This  book  includes  a  variety  of  pertinent 
essays  including  ones  by  Henry  David  Thoreau,  Gustav  Stickley,  Henry  Wright 
and  Clarence  Stein. 

O'Gorman,  James  F.,  Jeffrey  A.  Cohen,  George  E.  Thomas  and  G.  Hohnes  Perkins. 
Drawing  Toward  Building:  Philadelphia  Architectural  Graphics,  1732-1986. 
Philadelphia,  1986. 

Osborne,  Charles  Francis,  ed.  Country  Homes  and  Gardens  of  Moderate  Cost. 
Philadelphia:  The  John  C.  Winston  Co.,  Publishers,  1907. 

Parrington,  Vernon  Louis,  Jr.  American  Dreams.  NY:  Russell  &  Russell,  1964  (2nd 

Sewell,  Darell,  ed.  Philadelphia,  Three  Centuries  of  American  Art.  Philadelphia,  1976. 

- 167 

Shakespeare,  William.  As  You  Like  It.  c.1599.  Reprint.  NY:  Airmont  Publishing  Co., 
Inc.,  1965. 

Stein,  Clarence.  Toward  New  Towns  for  America.  Liverpool,  Eng.:  Univ.  Press  of 
Liverpool,  1951. 

Stilgoe,  John  R.  Borderland:  Origins  of  the  American  Suburb,  1820  - 1939.  New  Haven, 
CT:  Yale  Univ.  Press,  1988. 

Stilgoe,  John  R.  Common  Landscape  of  America,  1580  to  1845.  New  Haven,  CT:  Yale 
Univ.  Press,  1982. 

Terkel,  Studs.  American  Dreams  Lost  and  Found.  NY:  Pantheon  Books,  1980. 

Thoreau,  Henry  David.  Walden.  1854.  Reprint.  NY:  Random  House,  1937. 

Trachtenberg,  Alan.  The  Incorporation  of  America:  Culture  and  Society  in  the  Gilded 
Age.  NY:  Hill  and  Wang,  1982. 

Vance,  James  E.,  Jr.  "Democratic  Utopia  and  the  American  Landscape."  In  The  Making 
of  the  American  Landscape.  Michael  P.  Conzen,  ed.  London:  Harper  Collins, 

Veblen,  Thorstein.  The  Theory  of  the  Leisure  Class.   1899.  Reprint.  NY:  Penguin 
Books,  1981. 

Whitman,  Walt.  Leaves  of  Grass.  \S55.  Reprint.  NY:  The  Limited  Editions  Club, 

Manuscripts  and  Unpublished  Works 

"Arden  Book,"  Arden  Community  Planning  Committee,  1992. 

Bitterman,  EUzabeth  and  EUza  Edwards.  "WilUam  Price  and  the  Architectural 
Development  of  Arden,"  May  1, 1992. 

Larson  Peter  A.  and  Cy  Liberman.  "Arden,  Delaware  --  Utopian  Experiment  in  Single 
Tax  and  Success  as  a  Planned  Community."  A  lecture  presented  at  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  American  Institute  of  Planners,  Atianta,  GA,  1973.  (AA). 

Redman,  Matt.  "The  Story  Behind  the  Gilpin's  Point  Single-Tax  Community."  Term 
Paper,  Washington  College.  November  19,  1992.  (HSG). 

Thomas,  George.  "William  L.  Price  (1861-1916),  Builder  of  Men  and  of  Buildings." 
Ph.D.  diss..  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1975.  (FFAL). 

Journal  and  Newspaper  Articles 

Brandner,  Mayda.  "Arden:  Its  History  and  Habits."  Delaware  Today,  I9bii.  (AA). 


Brandner,  Mayda.  "Arden:  An  Unique  Delaware  Community."  Delaware  Today,  1968. 


Mullinax,  Gary.  "Thomas  Eakins  seen  as  flawed  man  behind  the  myth."  The  News 
Journal,  Wilmington,  DE.  December  10,  1992. 

Sayles,  Tim.  "Arden,  Delaware."  Mid-Atlantic  Country,  February,  1988. 

Simon,  Linda.  "Socialism  at  Home:  the  Case  of  Upton  Sinclair."  In  New  Jersey  History. 
Volume  107.  Spring/Summer  1989. 

Weincek,  Henry.  "A  Delaware  Delight:  the  Oasis  called  Arden."  Smithsonian,  Volume 
23,  No.  2,  May  1992,  pp.  124-142. 

Wilson,  Richard  Guy.  "Idealism  and  the  Origin  of  the  First  American  Suburb."  The 
American  Art  Journal,  Volume  11,  October  1979,  79-90. 


AA  =  Arden  Archives,  Arden,  DE 

AOP  =  Athenaeum  of  Philadelphia,  Philadelphia,  PA 

APAFA  =  Archives  of  the  Pennsylvania  Academy  of  Fine  Arts,  Philadelphia,  PA 

ES  =  Ethical  Society,  Philadelphia,  PA 

FFAL  =  Fisher  Fine  Arts  Library,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  PA 

FHLSC  =  Friends  Historical  Library  ofSwarthmore  College,  Swarthmore,  PA 

HGS  =  Henry  George  School,  Philadelphia,  PA 

HSD  =  Historical  Society  of  Delaware,  Wilmington,  DE 

HSP  =  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  PA 

MLGD  =  Map  Library,  Geology  Dept.,  Hoyden  Hall,  Univ.  of  Pennsylvania,  Phila.,  PA 

PAFAL  =  Pennsylvania  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  Library,  Philadelphia,  PA 

PEL  =  Philadelphia  Free  Library,  Philadelphia,  PA 


Anne  &  Jerome  Fisher 


University  of  Pennsylvania 

Please  return  this  book  as  soon  as  you  have  fkiished  with 

"  -"""  »c.  j^uu  iidve  iMiisnea  with 

It.   It  must  be  returned  by  the  latest  date  statped  1*b1ow 

*    "?^   V 



,^    Uf<}JVER9%0F 
<i^   PENWSYLt^lA 



OCT    1  0    1994 
UNiV-  Or  HENNA. 

3    1198   04977   2614 



3    1198   04977   2614 




)  T,    J  »f;v.„  -IT.